1. Welding related
    1. Detect, identify metal type - see metals
    2. Filler metal
    3. TIG electrode notes
      1. Color codes
    4. Clamping and weld distortion
    5. Argon Gas flow
    6. Tool steel like rod -
    7. Spot Welding
    8. Silver solder
    9. mystery metal - pot - aluminum?
    10. TIG Brazing - silicone bronze
      1. Tig Brazing Cast Iron
    11. TIG settings starting recipes
      1. Aluminum
  2. Metal Files
  3. Adhesives
    1. epoxy
    2. Loctite
    3. Hylomar
      1. Loctite colors.
    4. styrene butadiene (Goop) (oil resistant)
      1.   Chemicals that have little or no effect on Goop II max
    5. Blackmax 380
    6. 3M-467 tape
    7. Teflon tape
    8. Epoxy
      1. PC.7
      2. BSI
      3. Loctite 1373425 Hysol 1C
      4. epoxy tramming - slide forming
    9. Adhesive removal
  4. Bits - drills - reamers - boring - milling cutters
    1. Taps
  5. Abrasives, Lapping, and grinding
    1. Lapping Notes
    2. Lapping Abrasives
      1. Graded grits
    3. Sand paper for metal
    4. Deburring
    5. Cut off wheel - use for tool grinding
    6. PGS (Precision Ground Stones)
    7. Grinding wheels

    8. Lapping machine
    9. U2 Deckel style D-bit grinder
  6. Gaskets
    1. Sealers
  7. Ball bearings
  8. Lubricants
    1. Penetrating schmoo
    2. MMO (Marvel Mystery Oil)  Lots of exaggerated claims - contains:
    3. Cutting lube - coolants - schmoo
    4. prevention
    5. Grease
  9. Thread issues
    1. Recommended torque
    2. Thread repair
  10. Painting
    1. Improve wetting
    2. Degreasing and stripping - rust removal
    3. Powder coating
  11. Rust prevention
    1. Storage coatings
    1. Cold bluing
    2. Hot bluing
    3. Glass bead cabinet
  12. Bandsaws
    1.  Chinese Thing Everyone has
    2. Skil 3386
    3. Roll-In Band Saw - Model EF1459
  13. Clamps
  14. Die / spindle Grinder
    1. Spindle air grinder
  15. U2 grinding machine
  16. Chucks
  17. ER Collets Notes
    1. ER Torque
  18. Metrology
    1. Indicator Stands
    2. Repeatometer
    3. Flatness by process and example - approximate
    4. Surface Plate notes
      1. Inking
      2. Support blocks for surface plates
      3. Materials in plates
      4. Possible treatment to make black plates surface wear better
    5. Setup blocks
    6. Squish-test
    7. Using Straight edge
    8. Scraping
  19. Plastics and similar materials
  20. Metals
    1. Detect, identify metal type
    2. Sources
      1. Special alloys
    3. Cast iron
    4. Steel
      1. Mild Steel
      2. ALLOY STEEL
    5. For Machine shafts and parts - hardening etc
    6. Heat treating - carbonizing
      1. Hardness
    7. Stainless
    8. Brass
    9. Bronze
      1. Aluminum Bronze 642
      2. Gilding metal
    10. Aluminum
  21. cutting tools
    1. Feeds and speeds
      1. From tool/insert data - printed on package is Fz and  Vc we can calculate n(spindle speed) and Vf  (speed of table.
    2. Spotting drill
    3. Boring heads
    4. Inserts
      1. Insert Size and shapes
        1. ANSI vs ISO - The codes will confuse you
      2. Current Insets
      3. holders
        1. Lathe cut-off
        2. Lathe others
      4. Cutting tool materials
        1. Inserts Carbide
        2. CBN
        3. MKD (Monocrystalline Diamond)
      5. Insert screws
      6. Grades
        1. Ingersol old codes
        2. ISCAR codes
        3. Mitsubishi
        4. Sandnvik
        5. Kennametal
        6. Korloy
        7. Kyocera
        8. Unknown
      7. Coatings
          1. CVD(ChemicalVaporDeposition)
            1. TiN Coatings:
            2. TiC Coatings:
            3. Al203 Coatings:
          2. PVD (PhysicalVaporDeposition)
            1. TiN Coatings:
            2. TiCN Coatings:
            3. TiAIN Coatings:
  22. Gears
  23. Bearings
  24. Fasteners
  25. CAD And CAM
  26. 3D metal printers
  27. Precision parts to think about
    1. Misumi miniature ball slides
    2. Keyless shaft locking
  28. Machining Terms
  29. Equipment
    1. Plates and angles
    2. Manufactures Data sheets
  30. Techniques
    1. Interference fits
    2. Machining glass
  31. People

Welding related

Detect, identify metal type - see metals

Filler metal

ER309L - good maintenance filler - works well with combination metals - like carbon steel to stainless. Best bet for mystery metals

TIG electrode notes

Tungsten Diameter tungsten area Gas Cup (Inside Dia.) Typical Current Range (Amps)

Direct Current, DC

Alternating Current

AC

DCEN 70% Penetration (50/50) Balanced Wave AC

Ceriated
Thoriated
Lanthanated

Zirconiated

Ceriated
Thoriated
Lanthanated

Zirconiated

Ceriated
Thoriated
Lanthanated

.040 Tables 63 #5 (3/8 in) 15–80 20–60 15–80 10–30 20–60
.062 (1/16 in) 97
#5 (3/8 in) 70–150 50–100 70–150 30–80 60–120
.093 (3/32 in) 146
#8 (1/2 in) 150–250 100–160 140–235 60–130 100–180
.125 (1/8 in) 196
#8 (1/2 in) 250–400 150–200 225–325 100–180 160–250

DCEN = Direct Current Electrode Negative (Straight Polarity).

all values are based on the use of argon as a shielding gas. other current may be employed depending gas, type equipment, and application.


Color codes

Type of Tungsten
Color code
Description
Pure
Green
Provides good arc stability for AC welding. Reasonably good resistance to contamination. Lowest current carrying capacity.
Least expensive. Maintains a balled end.
Ceriated
CeO2
1.8% to 2.2%
Gray
Similar performance to thoriated tungsten. Easy arc starting, good arc stability, long life. Possible replacement for thoriated.
Thoriated
ThO2
1.7% to 2.2%
Red
Yellow
Easier arc starting. Higher current capacity. Greater arc stability. High resistance to weld pool contamination.
Difficult to maintain balled end on AC.
Lanthanated
La2O3
1.3% to 1.7%
Gold
Black
Blue
Yellow
Similar performance to thoriated tungsten. Easy arc starting, good arc stability, long life, high current capacity.
Possible replacement for thoriated.
Zirconiated
ZrO2
0.15% to 0.40%
Brown
Excellent for AC welding due to favorable retention of balled end, high resistance to contamination, and
good arc starting. Preferred when tungsten contamination of weld is intolerable.


Tungsten Pure  Green 


Tig on cast iron - use Nickle 99 - actually a type of brazing.

Tip stick out rule of thumb - should be about the same as the cup opening.

Filler for Au casting - 4047

Clamping and weld distortion

Despite what people say - it is best to only clamp until the weld tacks are in place. This is the same reason restraining the part (by being fast so the rest of the metal restrains  - or clamping) increases the bend amount in flame straightening.

Argon Gas flow

 Good starting point - set the LPM to the cup size.

Tool steel like rod -

weld mold 958

D2 tig filler metal


Stellite 6/12 tig filler - very hard https://www.stellite.com/us/en/products/hardfacing-alloys/welding-rod.html

c83 rod

Spot Welding

Electrode tips copper tungsten or copper chrome

Silver solder

Stay bright - low temp

High temp use Safety silv 56

Stay-Silv by Harris (Robrenz uses) high temp brazing flux(water based) turns clear at temp

Heat bigger part first

Harris Safety-Silv 45 brazing temperature is1370⁰ to 1550⁰ F.  Safety-Silv 56 is 1200⁰ to 1400⁰ F. 

Safety Silv white flux active range 1000⁰ to 1600⁰ F. Safety Silv black flux  active range 1050⁰ to 1700⁰ F. Also the black flux has a boron content that extends its working time. Flux activity is time limited at brazing temperature.

The liquid flux oxidizes in air over time forming a tough film that inhibits joint wetting. For that reason, plan your operation - do not dally.

A final point is joint cleanliness. Clean the joint thoroughly, then scrub the joint surfaces with Comet cleanser, a stiff brush, and water followed by a hot water rinse. Do not follow with a solvent clean (any  solvent) Conventional wisdom decrees a final acetone wash. Acetone is a commercial product containing impurities, reaction fractions, wax, and tramp particulates. These pyrolyze and inhibit flux activity and joint wetting.
Comet cleanser as your last step makes a huge difference


ZYP Coatings makes a Boron Nitride Aerosol Lubricoat that can be used as a solder resist. Cheaper to get Boron Nitride as 'white graphite'..  - found powder - mix with bit of solvent (acetone or ethanol) Spread on as a resist.

mystery metal - pot - aluminum?

AC - 200A Pulse - 120/s  PK95 Bk70 240Hz - fresh air..

TIG Brazing - silicone bronze

Don't puddle base metal -Stay over bronze -  just hot enough to not ball up.  AC or DC - lay-wire- don't dab -  pulse DC is probably best -- 100A good place to start.. clean everything - even rod ..  Pulsing 1-2/sec 33%-background  33% at peak lets you lay-wire - dabbing makes oxides.   Half strength of steel - but less distortion.

Tig Brazing Cast Iron

For cast iron - preheat to 425C
Si Bronze AWS A 5.27 RBCuZn-C melts at 860-890C Tensile Strength 460 MPa 60-68kpsu
Nickel 99 NICKEL 99 AWS/SFA 5.15 Eni-Cl  melts at 1453C  Yield - 36-50ksi

TIG settings starting recipes

Aluminum

Frequency - 90-120 - the higher the frequency the tighter the arc-cone - and less heat/penetration
Balance -- about 70 Lower cleans more
Pulse settings (helps with melt through) 1.2-2hz (Pulses-per-Second) for adding filler synchronized.  On time 50% Back ground 25-40%



Metal Files

Cut numbers are not the same for different types of files! They really should specify the Pitch - but don't!  Need a Graticule or Reticle to measure it.

Cut rating of files:
Cut number
Pitch um
Needle
and Escapement
Pitch um
Swiss pattern
4"-8"
00
498
620
0
397 498
1
322
397
2
261
322
4
179
217
5
147

6
119
147
8
86




Adhesives

epoxy

Frisket film makes for a good resist.

Loctite

Red loctite 263
mounting wax
https://www.amazon.de/WEKEM-Sekundenkleber-hochviskos-dickfl%C3%BCssig-schwarz/dp/B01AWFQBV WEKEM WK-2400 Good for gluing shim stock for stops
MEK can be used to thin epoxy..

Loctite 1712314 repositional spray adhesive

Hylomar

- gasket material - also keeps things from vibrating lose that get taken apart repeatably - not as strong as loctite blue.  Does not significantly change dry fit up dimentions.  Requires true surfaces.

Loctite colors.

Purple  Low Strength Threadlockers.
Blue (243): Medium Strength Threadlockers.
Green (294): Penetrating Threadlockers. - wicks into cracks - heat to remove
Red - highest strength -heat to remove.
Black - toughened superglue - 438 for work holding.


styrene butadiene (Goop) (oil resistant)

Can be smoothed/formed by thinning with Toluene

  Chemicals that have little or no effect on Goop II max

(percentages are given by weight unless otherwise noted.)
Acetic acid (5% and 10%)
Ammonium hydroxide (3.4%)
 Ammonium nitrate (50%)
 Antifreeze
Beer (3.2% alcohol by volume)
Boric acid (3.1%)
Distilled water
Hydraulic oil
Lactic acid (3.8%)
Milk (fresh, tested at 40 °F)
Motor oil (30w)
Nitric acid (10% and 20%)
Oxalic acid (3.1%)
Phosphoric acid (30% and 60% as P2O5)
Potassium hydroxide (3.4%)
Sodium carbonates (2.7%)
Sodium chloride (10%)
Sulfuric acid (3% and 10%)
Wine (20% alcohol by volume)

exhibits excellent resistance to water, dilute acids and dilute bases. Thin films of AMAZING GOOP® II MAXTM were immersed in various chemicals for two weeks and  exhibited weight gains of less than 2% and tensile strength loss of  less than 10%. These chemicals are listed on the left.

Blackmax 380

rubber toughened ethyl cyanoacrylate adhesive with increased flexibility, peel strength, and enhanced resistance to shock for temp stops - fixtures

3M-467 tape

adhesive only -- holds things. - replace adhesive on stickers/plates. - Robrenz recommended.

Teflon tape

mc 76475A51  - lots of varieties - sticky one side - teflon the other.

Epoxy

PC.7

  - good filler and strong - slow set

BSI

Has 5min and the stronger slow set - clear-ish -

Loctite 1373425 Hysol 1C

Top quality epoxy Shore Hardness 65 Shore D, Shear Strength 1500 psi

epoxy tramming - slide forming

https://www.diamant-polymer.de/en/products/moglice/
https://www.diamant-polymer.de/en/products/dwh/
Rulon 142 or Turcite

DIY moglice -  DHW epoxy filled with more than 80% by weight steel.
-p is paste like
--FL is pourable.

DWH-310-FL  viscosity 12k-14K (low viscosity) Steel filled
DWH-310-P  low viscosity - coating of parting lines - mounting surfaces

DWH-311-FL   viscosity 20-25k - still low..  aluminum filled
DWH-314-FL  viscosity 28K  Mineral filled


Moglice 1000-FL -  Has low friction additives

the regular moglice has graphite and molybdenum disulfide -
Recipe from patent - percent by weight:

Poor mans recipe epoxy 70 moly 20 graphite 10 - needs test.

The putty moglice is scrapable - but soft - easy to go to far.
The DWH - fitting epoxy..

Adhesive removal

Plexiglass backing gets old and hard to remove - soak in pure cleaning ammonia - scrape off the paper layer - let dry - cover with methanol - wait a bit - scrape.

Bits - drills - reamers - boring - milling cutters

For hard metal - high Rock

Carbide bur for phenolic SGStool.com  73011 FGR #9 Style A
Diamond burr for aluminum??
O-flutes for plastics https://www.onsrud.com/articles/O-Flutes-For-Mechanical-Plastics.asp 
https://www.onsrud.com/Series/SolidCarbide1-2FluteDowncutPlastic.asp

Taps

Extensions - best are RITMAR 
Lisle LI70500 tap socket set - combine with a
ball spline assembly - ball spline bushings.


Abrasives, Lapping, and grinding

Lapping Notes

The groves in a lapping plate make a difference.  The edge of what you are lapping will pile up abrasive and cut more - the groves help prevent this.  An iron lapping plate can be covered with a polycarbonate film (stuck on with some purple-power) - or use thick aluminum foil (can't find anymore?).

Lapping details

Lapping Abrasives


PSA diamond film - use PSA only for roughing and be meticulous about cleanliness, dust or hair will make it almost impossible to use. With plain film back just spray the back with water and squeegee it to the plate.

Eye - lap (mcmaster) copper tool for lapping ID to match pins

3M™ Microfinishing Film Roll

 12" wide x 25 yard roll of 220 grit Silicon Carbide paper - Abrasives South Inc. 1-800-255-8112  #18014 roughly $100.00

cerium oxide

At the finest level - lapping after scraping - don't use diamond or sil-carbide - instead .03um alumina- it breaks down - removable with kerosine (why not cerium oxide? )
You can see fringes on high spots. Alumina 9Mohs, Cerium oxide 7mohs - optical rouge lower yet -- iron 4-5 steel knife 5.5 - file 6.5

Graded grits

https://www.hisglassworks.com
https://gotgrit.com/
http://firsthanddiscovery.com/
https://www.us-nano.com/inc/sdetail/21645
https://www.kemet.co.uk

Sand paper for metal

Most of the skilled people use 3M wet/dry - wet with WD40. - 240 - 320 - 400 followed with Scotch bright is common..

Deburring

Cratex Brightboy stick deburr https://www.cratex.com 
Coarse = 125um 1.06um-Ra
Medium = 85um 0.48um-Ra
Fine = 65um 0.30um-Ra
xtra-fine = 25um 0.1um-Ra

Scotch-Brite EXL Unitized Wheel, Silicon Carbide,Fine Grit

Cut off wheel - use for tool grinding

3M™ Cubitron™ II Cut-Off Wheels for gross material removal (of High Speed Steel) 1mm thickness 65512

PGS (Precision Ground Stones)

Clean surface first with solvent - remove oils.
Start off dry - oil on the stone removes the sensitive feel.
Prepare the work by removing large burrs with a file or regular stone.
Clean and rub the stones first - we want a floating flat feel.
Slide stone gently onto work - you can feel tiny burrs sticking up - think of these stones as a kind of test tool.
If you feel a big burr - use file or regular stone again.
Feeling something rolling? Stop at once, and clean then rub stones again.
If things feel smooth try pushing a bit harder - follow grind direction.
To go a little further - use a bit of acetone or alcohol - don't use oil. Anhydrous isopropanol likely best. Lubrication removes the sensitive feel and sound of the stones.
Stones can be cleaned via ultrasonic tank - water based cleaner - Alconox - allow stones to completely dry before using.
When finished - the bare steel can rust - protect it with your favorite schmoo.

PGS were invented by Harold E. G. Areneson (RIP) of Professional Instruments Company - also invented high precision air bearings that had a central sleeve that apparently compensated for load.

Grinding wheels

Surface grinders normally run at 3-4K-RPM  slowing has the effect of a softer wheel
Typical starting point  46 H or I
10 structure

Percent Concentration Diamond/CBN  - concentration is the ratio between the diamond/CBN grains' weight and the volume of the abrasive layer. Standard concentration = 100 equals 4.4 carats per cubic centimeter.  Thus concentration can be over 100.. 200 would be 8.8 carats/cm3

Harder J-K 60-80 are for 'form' grinding
Depth of cut 5-15mills(125-400um) roughing 2.5um fine finishing

9A60JV tool post grinding wheel

These guys might have better wheels.. https://cuttermasters.com/

Continental diamond tool https://www.cdtusa.net/  used by solid rock..

radiac

Lapping machine

Alumina disk - out of chemical laboratory - used with diamond - 1um as a charged lap for mirror finish - Stephans disk is only 100mm
he gets 1000grit(about 15um) for his first polish - near mirror..   M5 screw hods it together. Wheels from search terms "faceting lap" "Lapidary - gem polish" etc.. Don't get the cheapest.
Also he touched up an insert with 1um diamond paste..

U2 Deckel style D-bit grinder

Shars 101-1008
Wheels are ⌀4"  outer diameter ⌀1.25" bore.


Gaskets

Sealers

Hylomar is the deal for close fitting things - solvent is acetone.   Maximum surface roughness target 2um-Ra

Ball bearings

Class 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9. The Higher ABEC classes provide better precision, efficiency, and greater speed capabilities.

Lubricants

Liquidmoly LM 48 -  assembly grease (Stefan likes it) for chucks etc.. https://products.liqui-moly.com - or blue moly? For assembly - not moly -- High-performance tungsten disulfide paste for heavy-
duty applications. It adheres even to apparently smooth surfaces. Rubbed into bearings and slideways, it prevents running-in damage and seizing marks when assembling components with tight pair-
ings. Contains a synergistically active solid lubricant system with a zinc sulfide, graphite, fluorides and tungsten disulfide base. Operating temperature range: -35 °C to +450 °C.

One can also just mix some molybdenum disulfide in to a bearing grease - I like the idea of the first lube having a bit of moly in it.


Never-seize (AKA Never-sneeze) - Blue moly has more of moly - molybdenum disulfide 7-13% and pure nickel powder 7-13% NLGI = 0.5 - not for high speed bearings. The grit is abrasive - but keeps bolts from seizing. 'Black moly' has even more molybdenum disulfide 10-30%. Zinc Oxide 5-10%.  Don't use as assembly grease on bearings.

Vactrac A better way oil? Harig oil16211245  http://www.trutech.store/harigstore/product.php?productid=17810

Penetrating schmoo

Commercial mixes of penetrating stuff don't penetrate quickly. Kroil and WD40 can work, but the winner by a factor of 10 is something you mix yourself. 50/50 solution of acetone and automatic transmission fluid. It's a mixture not a solution so you have to shake well before use. Apply liberally and it should loosen within 24 hours. (has anyone tested this?).

MMO (Marvel Mystery Oil)  Lots of exaggerated claims - contains:

Petroleum distillates (hydrotreated heavy naphthenic) also known as mineral oil, 74%
Petroleum distillates (Stoddard solvent) also known as white spirit, 25%
Tricresyl phosphate, an antiwear and extreme pressure additive in lubricants 0.1–1.0%  (an antiwear and extreme pressure additive)
Ortho-dichlorobenzene, a softening and removing agent for carbon-based contamination on metal surfaces, 0.1–1.0%  (high-boiling solvent)
Para-dichlorobenzene, a precursor used in the production of chemically and thermally resistant polymers, <0.1%  (moth ball - preservative?)

Cutting lube - coolants - schmoo

Aluminum routing - pure A-IPA mist - tiny amount - easy clean up.
Kool-Mist will spoil and plug up sprayers and stink - add tiny amount of some ORTHO-BENZYL-P-CHLOROPHENOL (Lysol concentrate - out of UK in 2020)
Make a heavy metal jar for schmoo  - JIC hydralic cap and plug  -20 (1.25")
coconut oil -  0.5% boric acid (50nm particle size)
anchor lube
Kleen flo
rapid tap
QualiChem Quick Tap Extreme-Duty what Edge precision is using for tapping.
Aluminum tap majic (Abom likes.)
Mistic Metal Mover (Abom likes for cutting stainless)
Stephan uses Jokisch Alpha 93 cutting oil - comes in aerosol (I like)

https://www.blaser.com makes very clear stuff - need to find out what is in synthetics.  https://www.qualichem.com

jokisch alpha 93 cutting oil ( Stephan) https://www.jokisch-fluids.de/catalog/en/metalworking-oils/cutting-oils/ https://www.hoffmann-group.com/GB/en/houk/Chemical-technical-products/Lubricating-coolants-cutting-materials/Cutting-oils/High-performance-cutting-oil-chlorine-free-Alpha-93/p/084210

qualichem tapping fluid - used by Peter Stanton

Lens cleaner - first contact

Viscous grease https://www.nyelubricants.com/damping

prevention

johnsons wax - chain wax??
Break Free CLP

ferrocote 5856 - source for small quantities???

Grease

Mobil Grease 28 - spindle ball bearings and ballscrew - thrust ball bearings - think of this as ball bearing grease

Assembly grease - Liebherr Compund CTK -- Liqui Moly (20216 LM 48 Assembly Paste)

LTS-1 low temp - good water resistance aluminum
AP(All Purpose) Grease is a lithium based multifunctional high temperature, water resistant grease
MP(Multi Purpose) grease number 2 grease?? washproof?
EP Grease(Extreme Pressure) EP grease has in its components, solid lubricants (graphite and/or molybdenum disulfide) to provide protection under heavy loadings.
NLGI consistency number (sometimes called “NLGI grade” or "NLGI number") expresses a measure of the relative hardness of a grease

LUBE SPECS Tables
LUBE CODE LUBE FS SPEC
4 DRY NA
12 WINSOR LUBE L-245X FS171A
23 ANDOK C FS118
37 DOW CORNING 44 FS137A
44 ANDOK 260 FS167E
49 ANDOK B FS104A
67 RHEOTEMP 500 FS208
76 KRYTOX 240AB FS452
78 CHEVRON SRI FS545
86 MOBIL 28 FS381A
95 MOBILTEMP SHC 32 FS612
115 ISOFLEX TOPAS NB52 FS737
125 FERROCOTE 5856 BF FS639
149 ISOFLEX TOPAS NCA15 FS883
160 AEROSHELL 22 FS381B-P
161 KRYTOX 240AC FS433
162 ISOFLEX NBU 15 FS637
167 WINSOR LUBE L1018 FS179A
169 PQ CORROSION PREV. FS216
422 ISOFLEX SUPERLDS18 FS735
436 ANTICORIT L-245XBF FS890
443 ISOFLEX NCA 15 FS905
456 MOBILITH SHC15 FS919
NA LUBCON L252 FS915

NLGI
consistency
number
ASTM worked (60 strokes)
penetration at 25 °C
tenths of a millimetre
Appearance Consistency food analog
000 445-475 fluid cooking oil
00 400-430 semi-fluid apple sauce
0 355-385 very soft brown mustard
1 310-340 soft tomato paste
2 265-295 "normal" grease peanut butter
3 220-250 firm vegetable shortening
4 175-205 very firm frozen yogurt
5 130-160 hard smooth pate
6 85-115 very hard cheddar cheese

Thread issues

Recommended torque

Wrenches - fixed https://www.hoffmann-group.com/US/en/hus/Modular-machining/Indexable-milling-cutters-GARANT/Torque-screwdriver%2C-fixed-setting/p/211750?tId=281

Thread repair

Keenserts  https://www.carrlane.com/product/threaded-inserts


Bolts work good for relocating a thread but for larger holes a steel plug with Dutchman pins to lock
the repair plug in place.

Painting

Improve wetting

Do wetting test
4 - ways to prep:
Comet cleanser
Sandblast if possible
Heat to 250-300C
Clean with TIG torch

All will no longer wet after a few hours.   Wonder if this helps with powder coating as well?

Degreasing and stripping - rust removal

Solvents are a poor choice -

 Best with an ultrasonic tank  TSPP(Tetra-Sodium-Pyro-Phosphate) will clean what the deodorized kerosene solvents leave behind. This forms a Basic solution - (just 1% gets one a pH around 10). 

TSP(Tri-Sodium-phosphate) gets one to 1 pH of about 12 in a 1% solution.  One can remove even paint with it in a strong warm solution.  (Also used as a hard-soldering flux)

Both TSPP and TSP can attack aluminum - so you would want to be quick and rinse well -
Purple power degreaser (wallymart)

Flash rust does not occur if the wetted surface is above Ph 8.2 or so..

Citra-strip?
evaporust

Powder coating

Columbia coatings http://www.columbiacoatings.com/ DIY powder coating 230C
Chrome http://www.columbiacoatings.com/store/p/1118-All-In-One-Chrome.aspx
powder on hot will fill holes..

Rust prevention

Storage coatings

Camphor in the tool chest

Boeshield  - spray on wax.


Cold bluing

Clean and damp and warm - use RO water - active surface?
JAX makes gal jugs of it.

Hot bluing

Boric acid + mineral spirits paste - heat to red quench in oil - polish
Heat over brass chips - blue and repeat
Clean and clean with 'rodico'
Thick brass box with brass shavings to make even heat.

Glass bead cabinet

150 micron

Makes surface wetable - good for painting
Tacoma upgrade kit for harbor freight cabinet http://www.tacomacompany.com/
Diamond coated glass - checkout scanners

70u after heat treatment aloxl
Files Vallorbe Swiss Habilis precision file http://www.vallorbe.com/en-ch/products/files/habilis-files

Diamond like coated glass:
 Honneywell part numbers: 
46-46807- Diamonex Platter for compact (420mm) (16.5") StratosH 2322.
46-46806- Diamonex Platter for full-size 508mm (20.0") StratosH 2320/2321.
46-00233 - Diamonex Platter - Compact Stratos 2421
46-00234- Diamonex Platter for sub-compact (353mm) (13.9") Stratos 2422.
46-00296- Diamonex Platter with lift handle for compact (399mm) Stratos 2421.
46-01085 - Diamonex Platter - 508mm StratosMS2430-105KD-US.
46-00235- Sapphire Platter for compact (399mm) Stratos 2421.
46-46809- Sapphire Platter for compact (420mm) StratosH 2322.
46-46808- Sapphire Platter for full-size (508mm) StratosH 2320/2321.
46-00236- Sapphire Platter for sub-compact (353mm) Stratos 2422.
46-00297- Sapphire Platter with lift handle for compact (399mm) Stratos 2421.
46-01127 -Sapphire Platter for StratosS and 2421 (399mm) with 3 flip ups.

Bandsaws

 Chinese Thing Everyone has

6-8 tooth (Stephan)

1/2 x 0.025 x 64-1/2 in. - AKA 5' 4.5" silly legacy units

DM2 (DieMaster-2) - bi-metal - 0.025

Skil 3386

length 150.5 151mm [59-1/4 - 59-1/2]

Bimetal in 9.5mm [3/8"] for metal - not including steel.

Roll-In Band Saw - Model EF1459

Dream machine

Clamps

Holex Universal clamp (kant twist but better) https://www.hoffmann-group.com/PT/en/hop/Hand-and-assembly-tools/Clamps/c/86

Die / spindle Grinder

BIAX make air powered  60k -100k RPM Biax?  only air - top end 85-100krpm

NSK pencil grinder dr-500 (Edge precision) 

https://proxxon.com - only goes up to 20k rpm - good dremel replacement  TIR= 50um

https://store.cncstepusa.com/products/kress-1050-fme-p  kress 1050 FME-P runout of max 10um guaranteed.

https://www.nsk-nakanishi.co.jp/industrial-eng/mgt/emaxevolution/ Stephan's latest  IR-310 https://www.artcotools.com/nsk-nakanishi-ir310-ring-type-attachment.html

Spindle air grinder

PLANET 600 Air Turbine Spindle - 65,000   TIR = 1um !!  ($1000+ used as of 2020) rpm http://www.nskamericacorp.com/product/category/planet/28?AspxAutoDetectCookieSupport=1

Continental Diamond Tool Corporation https://www.cdtusa.net/  CBN grinding tools.. 

http://professionalinstrumentscompany.com/products/rotary-motion/air-bearings/

Air Turbine 602JS 40-90krpm TIR = 10um

U2 grinding machine

Chucks

Rohm the best?
Albrecht chucks keyless look very good

ER Collets Notes

ER(Extended Range) originated by Rego-Fix - Swiss company - originated in 1976.
The collet HAS to be snapped in before tightening.

Do not use the backup screw to set length - it is tightened AFTER the collet.

ER Torque

collet size
Torque
recommended
Torque
max
Wrench
size
Range
ER8




ER11




ER16
28 Nm
50 Nm
25 mm 24.5?
1 -10mm
ER20




ER25




ER32
70 Nm
105 Nm
45 mm
2-20mm
ER40
120 Nm
150 Nm
57 mm
3-26mm
ER50




Metrology

Indicator Stands

The best surface plate indicator stand is the Murkens tool (What Herman Schmidt sold and then copied).  http://murkensprecisiontool.com/indicatorbase.html

Magnetic bases are not all the same.  Be sure to look at the pull strength.  Often it is best to mill a flat where the main rod screw in to make a stiffer joint - perhaps a copper crush washer? And while you are at it, increase the diameter of the first rod.

The Noga style arms have a trick for those new to using them - the joints get tight one at a time as you tighten it.  Still a bit fiddly to use and they are not perfectly rigid.

Repeatometer

low carbon precision ground stock 1/2 x 4 x 11.75
The silicon nitride ball is 0.1875" diameter and is glued in a ball milled pocket.

Flatness by process and example - approximate

Surface Plate notes

Inking

Spotting ink - charbonnel aqua wash  https://www.dickblick.com
PRussian blue
primrose yellow
cardinal red
Robin renzetti says 50:50 charbonnel/Canode mix in a syringe is the bomb- use with latex rubber rollers.

Support blocks for surface plates

Bessel points located .2203 X L from each end --- .5594 x L apart - equalized deflection by gravity - middle and ends
Airy points = no slope at ends 0.21132* L from each end or .57736 apart

That being said - I think using 3 points under a surface plate ignores reality.  A somewhat compliant flat material that supports the plate all over will allow the plate to hold more weight without bending.  Anyone can load this up in a CAD system and run FIA to see the truth.

Materials in plates

SiO2 In the form of Alpha-quartz (7moh) - 5.5 x 10-7 /°C = This coefficient is 1/34 that of copper and only 1/7 of borosilicate glass.
SiC  - 4.4X10-6/°C
Cera Zero  826HV *

Possible treatment to make black plates surface wear better

There is a technology used on concrete floors - sodium silicate(water-glass) is applied as a densifier (sometimes lithium silicate) - then diamond polished to a shinny surface.

Black surface plates are stiffer, but softer surface.

I propose coating the surface with sodium silicate to provide a harder wear surface - then lapp flat again.  Could be it will be too smooth - cause wringing problems?


Setup blocks

Setup blocks 20x40x60mm
Renzetti hole pattern 6mm thread

Squish-test


Plastigauge -  -- I have used multicore solder with accurate results as well.  Just squish the solder - measure with micrometer.
Temperature

Thermochrom temp crayons.

Using Straight edge

There is more to this than meets the eye(pun intended).. See http://what-when-how.com/ology/straight-edges-metrology/

Scraping

Normally cast iron.
DIY scraping tool  inserts:
3/4 x 3/4 x 3/16
1/2 x 1/2 x 1/8
bar 3/16 x 3/4 cold rolled flat bar
M6 screw holding?

1/8 x 1/2 x 1" USA-Made C2 carbide blanks - MSC # 04120754 or better carbide processors

Scraper blades are usually straight C-2.
Pin pointing scraper https://youtu.be/QUtH8Wkhrw4?t=2804



Blade for scraping carbon-steel as per Alex Fillafer
carbon steel scraper

Plastics and similar materials

Ren Shape 5045 is our highest density polyurethane foam board - sacrificial plate for routing - etc.

PTFE(teflon)

Epoxy epi- + oxy Epoxy - bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (Bisphenol is a phenol) - there is a strained triangular ring - with an oxygen (the oxy of epoxy) and two phenol rings (Phenols like to bond to everything (thus why rather than their so-call antiox properties - they bond to metals preventing absorption)).

TPU92A - filament - o-rings etc.  Flexable
PLA - brittle
PETG (PET - Glycol-modified)  - good layer adhesion - Lower temp
Nylon Strong


Metals

Detect, identify metal type - end-paint color codes

Hit with hard knocker:
Steel will go RINGGGGGGGGGgggggggg.......
ductile iron will go DING..
cast iron will go THUD.
https://www.europa-lehrmittel.de/tm47

Detect cast iron from cast steel - dust vs chips

01 tool steel = drill rod

Grinding tests - White, pink, ruby-red, or beige colored wheels work best - not the cheap black ones
See spark-tests

Carbide is heavier than HSS - 14-15g/cm^3 vs a little less than 8gm/cm^2

End paint color codes

There is more than one standard.  Not a good idea to rely on it. Often found on end of bar stock.

colors

Sources

Special alloys

http://www.nealloys.com/
https://www.frysteel.com/products.php

Cast iron

Durobar is much the same - machines better - better finish - MUCH more expensive than regular cast-iron.

Steel

Most common steels
1020  gummy mild steel
4140
O1
D2
A2

Mild Steel

1018 has a higher manganese content than certain other low carbon grades, such as 1020. With higher manganese, 1018 is better steel for carburized parts, since it produces a harder and more uniform case. It also has higher mechanical properties and better machinability due to the cold drawing process

ALLOY STEEL

Steel grade cross reference - Which standard to use?  Din W-Nr(Werkstoff-Number) - SAE/ANSI ???? Have a Material Cross Reference List pdf Just a start..
Need to make a table - columns - SAE - W-rn DIN Description 

O1 Drill rod (oil hardened) - 115CrV3  DIN 1.2210 / 115CrV3

4140 - DIN 1.7225
A2080 tool steel
DIN 1.2080 tool-steel (D3) - X210Cr12  D3 is an oil hardening, high carbon/chromium type tool steel with very high wear resistance. It hardens with a very slight change in
size. The alloy possesses very high compressive strength and is deep hardening.

DIN 1.2379 tool steel  (D2) - X 153 CrMoV 12    ≈ 720 N/mm²  high-alloy steel for through-hardening with moderate machinability; extremely wear resistant and low warpage, good dimensional stability, toughness and through hardenability

A2 - A2 Tool Steel | 1.2363 | X100CrMoV5

A2 Tool Steel is a versatile, air hardening chromium alloy tool steel that replaces O1 tool steel when safer hardening, less distortion and increased wear resistance are required. AISI type A2 steel is intermediate in wear resistance between O1 oil-hardening tool steel and D2 high-carbon, high-chromium tool steel.

Toolox® 33 is a prehardened steel suitable for tools and engineering components. It possesses good dimensional stability after machining. Delivered in quenched and tempered condition, Toolox® 33 features high impact toughness and very low residual stresses to achieve good dimensional stability after machining.

C45 (1045) Steel for making medium carbon tools.
4037 - dowel pins https://www.steelforge.com/alloy-steel-4037-aisi-4037 Molybdenum
Din 100Cr6 ball bearing steel SAE 52100
DC-53 Tool Steel
Din W-Nr(Werkstoff-Number) e.g. 1.4404 ( this would be an AISI SS316L, DIN X2CrNiMo17-12-2, UNS S31603 etc.


8620 20NiCrMo2-2 C=.2% Mo=.2%  is a hardenable chromium, molybdenum, nickel low alloy steel often used for carburizing to develop a case-hardened part.

Alloy composition (by weight)
SAE grade % >Cr % Mo % C * % Mn % P(max) % S(max) % Si
4118 0.40–0.60 0.08–0.15 0.18–0.23 0.70–0.90 0.035 0.040 0.15–0.35
4120 0.40–0.60 0.13–0.20 0.18–0.23 0.90–1.20 0.035 0.040 0.15–0.35
4121 0.45–0.65 0.20–0.30 0.18–0.23 0.75–1.00 0.035 0.040 0.15–0.35
4130 0.80–1.10 0.15–0.25 0.28–0.33 0.40–0.60 0.035 0.040 0.15–0.35
4135 0.80–1.10 0.15–0.25 0.33–0.38 0.70–0.90 0.035 0.040 0.15–0.35
4137 0.80–1.10 0.15–0.25 0.35–0.40 0.70–0.90 0.035 0.040 0.15–0.35
4140 0.80–1.10 0.15–0.25 0.38–0.43 0.75–1.00 0.035 0.040 0.15–0.35
4142 0.80–1.10 0.15–0.25 0.40–0.45 0.75–1.00 0.035 0.040 0.15–0.35
4145 0.80–1.10 0.15–0.25 0.43–0.48 0.75–1.00 0.035 0.040 0.15–0.35
4147 0.80–1.10 0.15–0.25 0.45–0.50 0.75–1.00 0.035 0.040 0.15–0.35
4150 0.80–1.10 0.15–0.25 0.48–0.53 0.75–1.00 0.035 0.040 0.15–0.35
4161 0.70–0.90 0.25–0.35 0.56–0.64 0.75–1.00 0.035 0.040 0.15–0.35
* The carbon composition of the alloy is denoted by the last two digits of the SAE specification number, in hundredths of a percent


C1084 - forging steel - rail track
ANCI C1060 - medium carbon steel C = .55-.65  Mn 0.6-0.9 P .04max S 0.05 max knuckle pin
TOOLOX 33 - quenched and tempered tool steel designed to have low residual stresses. It is characterized by its extremely good machinability and is pre-hardened to 33 HRC.
Gauge blocks are made of 52100 (chromium alloy steel ) tempered to 66 Rc  W-nr. 1.3505 - DIN 100Cr6

A6 Cams
M2 Dills/end-mills (HSS?), kinives, taps
S2 bolt cutters, wrenches
S5
S7 Cams,
O2 taps
O6
L6 15n20 - (1075 +2% nickle)  chisels,  hammers, screw drivers, wrenches
W2 files
AN25

In 10xx - the xx stands for the hundredths of a percent carbon. 1020 - would be 0.20% carbon
Framing nails 1008/1010/1018
1018 - most common grade
1020 -1030 railroad spikes, brake lever,
1040 - bolts, connecting rods, tubing
1050, and 1541H - Car axles below 1.625"

1060 Snap rings
1070 cluch disk,
1075-1095 - carbon kitchen knives - will rust - but get sharp.
1085 mower knives, music wire?
1095 - clock-spring-steel - Usually tempered blue - some drywall knives
1145 - Ujoints

2330 heat treated bolts
3130 Steering ARm bolts
3115 transmission gears

4042 Steering arms
4063 coil springs - car

4140 - 4145 hydraulic ram, transmission shafts
4815 heayduty bolts
5160 is used to make leaf springs, coil spings-truck, scrapers, bumpers, flexible knife edges.

52100 Ball bearings

carbon steel razor blades - about 1.2% carbon

For Machine shafts and parts - hardening etc

When you want tough materials that will see high tensile stresses, loads in alternating directions and magnitudes, you're going to have to rely on heat treated carbon or other alloy steel.

SAE8620 or equivalent is good - harden (carburize)  prior to grinding.
SAE4150 machined in an initially normalized condition. If you subsequently harden and draw to HRC 40-42 -- tough and strong.

Precise bearing fits on the spindle, need finish grinding to size. Bearing fit will be depend on type of bearings used.
Hang shafts when heat treating. When quenching, dip quench AXIALLY to avoid the risk of bowing/bending the part.
Surface hardening puts the subsurface into a compressive load which enhances strength and toughness. Explains why gears are often made of carberized and hardened 4820 or 8620 or 9310.

8620 makes EXCELLENT gears and shafting material. It is both tough and wear resistant, especially when deep carbuized. It is also relatively inexpensive. For really GOOD stuff, ask for AQBQ grade (aircraft quality, bearing quality). This stuff is comparatively void and stringer free. It also comes with material certifications that the imported crap doesn't have.

To really optimize stress reduction/minimization in a part:

1. Stress relieve at 1200F for 1-2 hours at heat prior to heat treating. Furnace cool if possible.

2. Carburize while standing on edge or hanging in furnace to minimize warpage.

3. Quench via axial dip as opposed to laying on side while quenching.

4. Double temper prior to grinding

5. Stress relieve at 250-300F after finish grind.

6 - to selectively carburize  use copper plating (about 50um thick) before carburizing.
iron-carbon-equalibrium

carbon-tensile-ductile
See
Hardening, tempering and heat treatment. Workshop practice series

Heat treating - carbonizing


plasma carbon nitriding
(temper)
vacuum temper, deep freeze - service from Solar Atmospheres

One can mix boric acid with methanol - heat part in steel bowl - then quench bowl and all - no scale to speak of.  A thinner mix can be used to coat parts..  Borax is NOT boric acid.

Hardness

Rc hardness. Tool
42 Socket head cap screw
49 scales - metal rulers
49 screwdriver blade
50 hex wrench
55 lock-in pliers
56 pocket knife blade
58 height scribe blade
58 barbers razor blade
59 dowel pin
65 file
65 high speed steel
79 micro grain carbide

Stainless

Minimum of 10.5% chromium. The chromium forms a protective oxide film on the surface - very thin (2-3 nm).
Ferritic - (Cr 12.5 -17%) mostly nickel free - not heat treatable - weldable(thin) - magnetic
Martensitic (C - 0.2-1% Cr 10.5-18%) Heat treatable - magnetic - hard to weld - can get brittle
Austenitic (Cr 16-26% Ni 6-12% +)  Most common - non hardenable - work hardenable - weldable mostly non-magnetic
Duplex (Cr 18-26% Ni 4-7% Mo 0-4% cu ) magnetic,

 http://www.sidecuts.com/
Sheet steel stock gauge 18 and 10

Stainless sheet 17-7 - easy to harden
Martensiticstainless steels can be heat treated and hardened, but have reduced chemical resistance
ISO14305 (AKA 303)most easy to machine austenitic grade of stainless - has Sulfur for machine-ability.  https://titussteel.com/our-products/mold-and-die-steels/tool-ox-33/

Brass

Online metals has several types
360 brass Zn35.5 Fe 0.35 Pb 2.5-3.7 - most common of rod and bar

Bronze

Aluminum Bronze 642

This is a great material that is harder than Aluminum or bronze and machines well. We have used it for a great number of projects. Is an excellent material for valve stems, gears, marine hardware, pole-line hardware, bolts, nuts, valve bodies and components, mechanical parts

Gilding metal

cu90 zn10  - annealed rockwell-F 53
copper
hadness - annealed 40HV - hard 110HV

Aluminum

356 - used for casting..

cutting tools

Feeds and speeds

Feeds: Cutting speed or surface speed or speed - tooth tip speed = Vf

Speeds: Feedrate or feed - table speed

Surface finish - to improve from most to least effective - increase surface speed - increase depth of cut - increase feed rate

From tool/insert data - printed on package is Fz and  Vc we can calculate n(spindle speed) and Vf  (speed of table.

Fz or Ft = Feed per tooth  (chip load)  in mm =  MMPT (millimeter/tooth)   (imperial IPT Inch per Tooth)

Vc = m/min (cutting speed  - tip of tooth speed) in m so don't confuse with millimeter mm!!!  SMM Cutting speed - surface-distance-per min

D = tool diameter in mm  (in turning - workpiece diameter )

n = rev/min  as in RPM  becomes S-code

Vf  or Fm = table feed = velocity of table  MMPM (Millimeters per minute) (endmill)  in mm/min Table feed this is the F-code

Where:

Z or N= number of teeth or flutes

 n = Vc · 1000/π · D · n

Vf  or Fm = table feed = feed rate = velocity of table  MMPM (Millimeters per minute)


Ae = width of cut or Radial depth of cut

Ap = Depth of cut, Axial Depth of cut.



D1 = diameter of shaft without the flutes. 

Chipload = feed per tooth

n = rev/min  as in RPM    n = Vc 1000/D π   Simplifies to  Vc 318/D

Fn = Feed per rev  as in MMPR (Millimeters Per Revolution)

SMM  Surface meter/min  (imperial SFM (surface Feet per min))  = π  D  n

Vc = π · D · n  /1000   (1000 is to convert m to mm)

Fz = V / Z · n  

Vf = Fz · n (drill)

f = feed per rev (mm/rev)

Cutting feed (m/rev)   x spindle speed (RPM) = feed rate  m/min

End-mill plunge rate = feedrate/flutes

Q = material removal rate (cm3/min)

Ra = surface roughness (μm)

hm = average chip thickness.  = fz (Ae/D1)1/2

For best surface finish - step-over  should = feed per tooth.

Spotting drill

Some use a split carbide with a point angle to match the drill. Some use a pyramid point carbide (the math to get the angle right is harder). Both of these are similar to the points used for engraving, but the spot drills are of much larger diameter - all are stubby.

Boring heads

WOHLHAUPTER boring head -
Schmidt makes small ones http://www.schmid-praezision.de/eng/?Products-and-Service/Facing--and-Boring-Heads/UBS-Universal-Facing-and-Boring-Head  ausdrehkopf
Iscar DR-MF-08R-2.25D-12A-04  https://www.iscar.com/Products.aspx/CountryID/1/ProductId/4906 What Peter Stanto uses - actually a d'andrea rebranded. $500-$700/2020

Inserts

Lots of suppliers - Mil-Tec inserts - might be the best?  S-PS-032-5-2TA -- PS032-MTC357A2  ph(800) 564-5832



Insert Size and shapes

ANSI vs ISO - The codes will confuse you

Particularly the number bit - the first letters can be exactly the same - but for instance -  an ANSI CDE322 works out to be a ISO CDE160308.   In a sane world, the codes would put the most variable parts at the end - so Shape, dimensions - then angles - then tolerance and grade codes would have PMK codes embedded.... Well we don't live in a sane world.. There are extra letters added by some makers to make sure you stay confused.

  See insert codes for details or this chart with ISO, ANSI, and tool holder codes.
This table helps one translate ISO numbers with ANSI numbers.


Current Insets

S20R-SCLCRO9 (Insert CCMTO09T304)
SNRO020R16 (Insert 16IR AG60)
SER2020K16 (Insert 16ER AG60)
SDNCN2020K11 (Insert DCMT11T304)
SDJCR2020K11 (Insert DCMT11T304
MGEHR2020-3 (Insert MGMN300)
SCLCR2020K09 (Insert CCMTO09T304)
WWLNR2020K08 (Insert WN □ □ 0804  □  □ )



Find a boot-leg copy of ISO-1832-2017  for the latest bits.


And here is an example of the Old ANSI standard

CDE 322R05
|C 78 or 80° shape
||D 15° clearance angle
|||E Tolerance
||| - blank
|||||3 3/8" inscribed circle
||||||2 2/16" thickness
|||||||2 2/64" radius
||||||||R Right hand
|||||||||05
DCMT and CCMT are shapes- Details here http://www.carbidedepot.com/formulas-insert-d.htm

holders

Lathe cut-off

Iscar SGFH 26-3 Uses Insert : GFN/R/L 3

Lathe others





Cutting tool materials

Inserts Carbide

PCD Poly Crystalline diamond aluminum and copper

CBN Cubic Boron Nitride - really hard - harder than diamond at high temperature. Can actually machine sintered carbide to some extent.


Carbide" is mostly Tungsten Carbide (WC) sintered with cobalt as a glue to hold it together. - Straight grades (C1, C2, C3, C4) are tungsten carbide. C5 through C9 are alloyed grades containing titanium carbide, niobium carbide, tantalum carbide and a few others also in varying percentages.  Each added for certain characteristics and often only 1 to 5 percent of each. These are also know as "steel cutting grades" while the C1-C4 numbers are sometimes called "cast iron and/or aluminum" grades. C-8 or 9 may be 25% or more TiC so pushing a cermet. Grades above C-9 are special use and mostly straights. You see them in hammers, dies and such.

Tungsten Carbide Standard Grade Chart
Industry Code FCC Grade Binder Content & Type Hardness (Ra) Hardness
(HV30)
Density (g/cm3) Minimum Transverse Rupture Strength (psi) Grain Size
General Purpose Grades
C2 FC3 6% Co 92.0 1585 14.95 320,000 Fine
C1 FC4 7.5% Co 91.0 1460 14.70 330,000 Fine
Metal Forming and Wear Grades
C10 FC10 9% Co 90.0 1360 14.60 360,000 Medium
C11 FC11 12% Co 89.5 1315 14.30 390,000 Medium
C12 FC12 15% Co 88.0 1190 14.00 420,000 Medium
C13 FC13 20% Co 85.0 955 13.60 450,000 Medium
C14 FC25 25% Co 83.2 760 13.15 435,000 Medium
Submicron Grades
C3 FC3M 6% Co 93.0 1740 14.95 375,000 Submicron
C2 FC10M 10% Co 91.9 1570 14.50 450,000 Submicron
C1 FC12M 15% Co 89.5 1315 14.00 530,000 Submicron
Rotary Drilling and Mining Grades
C11 FC10C 10% Co 88.6 1240 14.50 400,000 Coarse
C12 FC11C 10% Co 87.8 1175 14.50 425,000 Coarse
Corrosion Resistant Grades
- FC3N 6% Ni 91.0 1460 14.95 275,000 Fine
- FC10N 9% Ni 89.5 1315 14.60 290,000 Fine
- FC8N 8.5% Ni 91.5 1515 14.50 300,000 Fine
- FC82 15% Ni+Co 89.9 1355 9.00 310,000 Fine
C6 - common







C1: Good wear resistance, nonferrous drawing, light blanking dies, mandrels, wear rings, high pressure parts, wood working blades, valve stems and seats, knives, bearings, grippers and guides.
C2: General Purpose wear resistance, where only light shock is encountered; small dies and mandrels, nonferrous wire and tube drawing, nozzles, seal rings and powder compacting dies.
C3: High abrasion resistance, little shock resistance; small drawing dies, coating and compacting dies, bushings, machines parts and valve parts.
C4: Hardest grade, high wear resistance, no shock or impact encountered; wear bushings and nozzles.

Cermet is a composite material composed of ceramic (cer) and metal (met) materials.

CBN

MKD (Monocrystalline Diamond)


Insert screws

; CDE322 takes a 60° flat head 6-32 - slightly less than 0.5".  This is notated as SE-02-01 or SE-02-11 - the last number is something about the length - but not clear what.  Wish I knew where to find the standard this is all based on.

Grades

First understand the PMK codes:

ddd

See machine reference folder

Sandvik codes start with GC ( Grade Code)
We update the second number when a new generation is created, so for the 3020 it would now be 3220 or GC3220
GC3040 also cast iron.
H13A non ferris


https://www.sandvik.coromant.com/en-us/products/pages/milling-inserts-grades.aspx

https://www.ingersoll-imc.com/support/milling-grades

https://www.ingersoll-imc.com/support/turning-grades-cross-reference

https://www.sumitool.com/en/downloads/cutting-tools/general-catalog/assets/pdf/GC_A_en.pdf

https://www.machiningdoctor.com/grades/grades-finder/

https://www.cets.com/resources/kennametal-grade-descriptions.html

This table can help cross insert grade codes.

Ingersol old codes

Some crosses https://www.widia.com/us/en/resources/conversion-guide.html

IN2505 P20-P30 M20-M40 K20-K30 N10-N30 S20-S30 H10-H30
IN2530 P20-P50 M20-M40 S20-S40

10K - H13A   -  K
102 KNSM20-M40, P20-P50, S20-S40
108  PMS
Grade 111 -->  IN10K - K
227 P-M-S
305   P 
501  K
511XL  P
555 P-M-S
6510  K
6530  P25-45 M25-40
581 à IN1530 à IN2530  PM
205 à IN15K cast iron  but HiPos lines went to IN30M -  N
301 à IN5530 à IN6530 à IN2530  P
919 CVD coated - 20 years old. likely something like what would eventually become IN6510 or IN6530 K
IN2515 would be the cast iron grade  K?
IN15K N

ISCAR codes

IC70 P15-25 c6
IC350 P10-20M K10-30

IC354 P20-40 M10-30 KNSH 

IC328 PMS

IC656 P20-40 MKSH

IC907  P10-30 M5-20 K15-30 H05-15 S05-20 N05-20

(Iscar SGFH 26-3 Uses Insert : GFN/R/L 3)

Mitsubishi

U610 PK
UE6020 PK

US735

VP15TF P20-30 M20-30 K20-30 S10-20

Sandnvik

4325 P

435 P35

H13A  N15-30

3020 K15, P15 CVD COATED K(fz 0.10-0.21mm Vc 225-185m/min)H(fz 0.10-0.21mm Vc 45-60m/min)

4015(GC4015) P-1-30 K5-25

5015 P K

Kennametal

CM3

KC725M P30-40 M30-40 S30-40

KC850 P25-45 M30-45 C5-C6
K313 M10-20 K05-20 N10-20 S10-20  C3-C4

KY2100

Korloy

PC9030 intended for M ft=0.05mm/ Vf=90mm/min

Kyocera

TN60 P1-10 M1-10 K1-15

TC60 - PM

Tungaloy

N308 P M

Unknown

YBM251 (ISO Class: P15-P40, M10-M30)

CK251 - appears to be YBC251 P10-P30

Chinese grades

Coatings

CVD(ChemicalVaporDeposition)

CVD coatings are thick (typically 9 – 20 microns) and highly wear resistant, making them especially useful for steel and cast iron machining as well as widely used in turning operations. Such thick coatings can compromise edge toughness.  Good for turning, milling and drilling applications involving ferrous materials. In fact, CVD-coated inserts are recommended over PVD-coated inserts for turning, milling or drilling steels and cast irons.

TiN Coatings:

Excellent build-up edge resistance
Excellent on gummy materials
Excellent for threading and cutoff operations
Makes it easy to identify what insert corners have been used
Effective at lower speeds

TiC Coatings:

Excellent wear resistance
Effective at medium speeds
Excellent on abrasive materials

Al203 Coatings:

Excellent crater resistance
Effective at high speeds and high heat conditions

PVD (PhysicalVaporDeposition)

PVD coatings are thin (typically 2 – 3 microns) yet tougher and typically smoother than CVD coatings.  Useful for machining materials, such as superalloys, titanium alloys and difficult-to-machine stainless steels, that typically notch or chip cutting edges.

PVD-coated inserts are especially useful for turning, milling and drilling applications involving high-temperature alloys, titanium alloys and stainless steel. PVD-coated inserts are recommended when turning high-temperature alloys; however, if the alloy is on the softer side and can be machined at higher speeds, a CVD coating is preferred.

PVD Coating Types:

TiN Coatings:

Excellent built-up edge resistance
Broad application range
Effective on high-temperature alloys
Effective on stainless steels

TiCN Coatings:

Harder than TiN coatings
Effective on end mills
Sometimes used in milling applications where the work material is abrasive

TiAIN Coatings:

Harder and more stable than other PVD coating types
Becomes harder and more stable with time
Effective on high-temperature alloys and stainless steels

Gears

 module-number = outside diameter/ (number-of-teeth + 2) in mm of course..  To convert to obsolete imperial numbers  = 25.4 /module-number

Bearings

Lip seals create more heat than you would think..


Fasteners

For button head screw - torx-plus is the best - hex drive fails.  Torx-plus should probably be the default for most socket head fasteners.


CAD And CAM

Robenz robinrenzetti uses solidworks CAD
Stephan uses Autodesk Fusion CAD (pro E at work)- Linux CNC CAM  - BOBCAD - I think alibre ..
Yes: Big step for me, had to pull the trigger on a 3d cam package to go along with Alibre Designer. Tried different packages in my price range and talked to several long time users (you know who you are, thanks!), and I ended up buying Bobcad v32 in 3axis, Pro version. Already using it to work in customer parts, with multiple setups. Thanks to the #bobcadafterdark videos. Time will tell what I got myself into ;)

Pro Engineer wildfire runs on Linux M180 - where to get?
solidworks via EAA - but no Linux so nothing-burger.

Peter Stanton(edge precision) uses ESPRIT what  uses for CAM (over $5k) - CAD - spceclaim http://www.spaceclaim.com

Possible Linux stuff - FreeCAD. solvespace (limited) - onshape(not free)

3D metal printers

https://www.shapeways.com/

 

Precision parts to think about

Misumi miniature ball slides

Keyless shaft locking

Misumi KPL300
Ringfedder RfN 8006

Machining Terms

Face and Flank 
On a cutting edge the face(AKA rake-=surface) is the side where the chip is formed and the flank is next to the new surface of what it being cut. There are two flanks on a lathe cutter - Flank(major) cuts as one feeds in Z - Flank(minor) cuts as one feeds in X(cross-slide) or plunge cut.  The nose radius is where the two flanks connect.
Mandrel vs Arbor
A mandrel holds work, an arbor hold tooling
Staking
Punching operation (often with center punch) to deform a part mostly to capture a part.
Dutchman
A hole with pin at the intersection of a shaft and hole to prevent rotation.
Weldon flat
A ground flat - typically on an endmill that a grub screw clamps to.  See
Whistle Notch
A beveled notch that is an improvement on a weldon flat in it helps resist axial motion. See
Pawl
pawl is a movable lever that engages a fixed component to either prevent movement in one direction or restrain it altogether. As such, it is a type of latch and can also be considered a type of dog. It typically consists of a spring-loaded lever that engages a mating component at a steep enough angle to restrain it. Pawls are often tapered, being widened at their pivot for anchoring and narrow at their tip.
Dog
a dog is a tool or part of a tool, such as a pawl, that prevents or imparts movement through physical engagement. Or it may hold another object in place by blocking it, clamping it, or otherwise obstructing its movement. A lathe dog transmits rotary motion from a faceplate to a workpiece mounted between centers in a lathe.


Equipment

Plates and angles

Large Cast iron lapping plate Bush - Milwaukee 18" x 15" ( Grooves are .078”W(2mm) x .100”D on .531” (13.5mm) centers. )
Lapping plate Challeng machinery grand haven MI  10" x 14"
surface plate Rahn 37230  !4" x 14"
Shars Granite Square - rt angle - 254 mm x 152 mm x 25mm
Surface Plate unnamed 9 x 12
Surface plate unnamed
Granite sink cutout 8.5 x 8
Step right angle 6 x 6
Cylindrical Square 6"
Surfcenter Brunswick Engineering Inc.

Manufactures Data sheets

Mitutoyo https://www2.mitutoyo.co.jp/eng/support/service/parts_list/index.php

Techniques

Interference fits

0.2mm for a a 140mm bore?  approximently 1/1000

Machining glass

- mount on machine wax
- carbide mill or drill
- RPM 1000-2000 RPM - for 4mm end mill or more?  - Will wear tool.
- Use cutting fluid to prevent fracture cooling.
- depth of cut - 200um

People

Phil Perry Hepler KS 66746  - restores machines.
Peter L Stanton - edge precision - Huston TX
Lance Baltzley - source of precision ground stones.
Chris Baca and Mikey Baca - Precision Instrument Repair 909 766 5041  or 760 561 2400

Email

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