Emco Maximat Super 11 (NOT ENCO!)
http://www.lathes.co.uk/emco/page4.html Emco Maximat V13 Lathe
and VÖEST DA160
Stephan and Muller Nick uses it with Multifix A form Axa tool post
holder.. ( abom and Forrest Addy as well)
simKO Lee? AXA brand - German made. (AXA is a
pewetools.de also makes them to original specs.
Sheldon? Harrison M250? M350 Higher better
- surface grind
- lazer cutter
- trimos height gauge
- Shaper Origin
metal type - see metals
|| tungsten area
||Gas Cup (Inside Dia.)
||Typical Current Range (Amps)
|Direct Current, DC
||(50/50) Balanced Wave AC
||#5 (3/8 in)
|.062 (1/16 in)
|#5 (3/8 in)
|.093 (3/32 in)
|#8 (1/2 in)
|.125 (1/8 in)
|#8 (1/2 in)
DCEN = Direct Current Electrode Negative (Straight
all values are based on the use of argon as a shielding gas.
other current may be employed depending gas, type equipment,
|Type of Tungsten
|Provides good arc stability for AC welding.
Reasonably good resistance to contamination. Lowest current
Least expensive. Maintains a balled end.
1.8% to 2.2%
|Similar performance to thoriated tungsten.
Easy arc starting, good arc stability, long life. Possible
replacement for thoriated.
1.7% to 2.2%
|Easier arc starting. Higher current capacity.
Greater arc stability. High resistance to weld pool
Difficult to maintain balled end on AC.
1.3% to 1.7%
|Similar performance to thoriated tungsten.
Easy arc starting, good arc stability, long life, high
Possible replacement for thoriated.
0.15% to 0.40%
|Excellent for AC welding due to favorable
retention of balled end, high resistance to contamination,
good arc starting. Preferred when tungsten contamination of
weld is intolerable.
Tungsten Pure Green
Tig on cast iron - use Nickle 99 - actually a type of brazing.
Tip stick out rule of thumb - should be about the same as the cup
Clamping and weld
Despite what people say - it is best to only clamp until the weld
tacks are in place. This is the same reason restraining the part (by
being fast so the rest of the metal restrains - or clamping)
increases the bend amount in flame straightening.
Argon Gas flow
Good starting point - set the LPM to the cup size.
Tool steel like rod
weld mold 958
D2 tig filler metal
Stellite 6/12 tig filler - very hard
Electrode tips copper tungsten or copper chrome
Stay bright - low temp
High temp use Safety silv 56
Stay-Silv by Harris (Robrenz uses) high temp brazing flux(water
based) turns clear at temp
Heat bigger part first
Harris Safety-Silv 45 brazing temperature is1370⁰ to 1550⁰ F.
Safety-Silv 56 is 1200⁰ to 1400⁰ F.
Safety Silv white flux active range 1000⁰ to 1600⁰ F. Safety Silv
black flux active range 1050⁰ to 1700⁰ F. Also the black flux
has a boron content that extends its working time. Flux activity is
time limited at brazing temperature.
The liquid flux oxidizes in air over time forming a tough film that
inhibits joint wetting. For that reason, plan your operation - do
A final point is joint cleanliness. Clean the joint thoroughly, then
scrub the joint surfaces with Comet cleanser, a stiff brush, and
water followed by a hot water rinse. Do not follow with a solvent
clean (any solvent) Conventional wisdom decrees a final
acetone wash. Acetone is a commercial product containing impurities,
reaction fractions, wax, and tramp particulates. These pyrolyze and
inhibit flux activity and joint wetting.
Comet cleanser as your last step makes a huge difference
ZYP Coatings makes a Boron Nitride Aerosol Lubricoat that can be
used as a solder resist. Cheaper to get Boron Nitride as 'white
graphite'.. - found powder - mix with bit of solvent (acetone
or ethanol) Spread on as a resist.
mystery metal -
pot - aluminum?
AC - 200A Pulse - 120/s PK95 Bk70 240Hz - fresh air..
TIG Brazing -
Don't puddle base metal -Stay over bronze - just hot enough
to not ball up. AC or DC - lay-wire- don't dab - pulse
DC is probably best -- 100A good place to start.. clean everything
- even rod .. Pulsing 1-2/sec 33%-background 33% at
peak lets you lay-wire - dabbing makes oxides. Half
strength of steel - but less distortion.
For cast iron - preheat to 425C
Si Bronze AWS A 5.27 RBCuZn-C melts at 860-890C Tensile Strength 460
Nickel 99 NICKEL 99 AWS/SFA 5.15 Eni-Cl melts at 1453C
Yield - 36-50ksi
Cut numbers are not the same for different types of files! They
really should specify the Pitch - but don't! Need a Graticule
or Reticle to measure it.
Cut rating of files:
Frisket film makes for a good resist.
Red loctite 263
Good for gluing shim stock for stops
MEK can be used to thin epoxy..
Loctite 1712314 repositional spray adhesive
Hylomar - gasket material - also keeps things from vibrating lose
that get taken apart repeatably - not as strong as loctite blue.
Purple Low Strength Threadlockers.
Blue (243): Medium Strength Threadlockers.
Green (294): Penetrating Threadlockers. - wicks into cracks - heat
Red - highest strength -heat to remove.
AKA goop - can be smoothed/formed by thinning with Toluene
rubber toughened ethyl cyanoacrylate adhesive with increased
flexibility, peel strength, and enhanced resistance to shock for
temp stops - fixtures
adhesive only -- holds things. - replace adhesive on
stickers/plates. - Robrenz recommended.
- good filler and strong - slow set
Has 5min and the stronger slow set - clear-ish -
Top quality epoxy Shore Hardness 65 Shore D, Shear Strength 1500
epoxy tramming -
Rulon 142 or Turcite
DIY moglice - DHW epoxy filled with more than 80% by weight
the regular moglice has graphite and molybdenum disulfide -
Recipe from patent - percent by weight:
- epoxy resin: 40-80 --- 60
- molybdenum disulphide: 15-30 22
- graphite: 10-15 12
- aluminum: 5-10 7
- copper: 5-10 7
- alumosilicate: 8-15 (glass )
- polyethylenepolyamine: 5-10. (ph control? likely in most
Poor mans recipe epoxy 70 moly 20 graphite 10 - needs test.
The putty moglice is scrapable - but soft - easy to go to far.
The DWH - fitting epoxy..
Plexiglass backing gets old and hard to remove - soak in pure
cleaning ammonia - scrape off the paper layer - let dry - cover
with methanol - wait a bit - scrape.
Bits - drills -
reamers - boring - milling cutters
For hard metal - high Rock
Carbide bur for phenolic SGStool.com 73011 FGR #9 Style A
Diamond burr for aluminum??
O-flutes for plastics
Extensions - best are RITMAR
PSA diamond film - use PSA only for roughing and be meticulous about
cleanliness, dust or hair will make it almost impossible to use.
With plain film back just spray the back with water and squeegee it
to the plate.
Eye - lap (mcmaster) copper tool for lapping ID to match pins
3M™ Microfinishing Film Roll
12" wide x 25 yard roll of 220 grit Silicon Carbide paper -
Abrasives South Inc. 1-800-255-8112 #18014 roughly $100.00
At the finest level - lapping after scraping - don't use diamond or
sil-carbide - instead .03um alumina- it breaks down - removable with
kerosine (why not cerium oxide? )
You can see fringes on high spots. Alumina 9Mohs, Cerium oxide 7mohs
- optical rouge lower yet -- iron 4-5 steel knife 5.5 - file 6.5
Sand paper for
Most of the skilled people use 3M wet/dry - wet with WD40. - 240 -
320 - 400 followed with Scotch bright is common..
Cratex Brightboy stick deburr https://www.cratex.com
Coarse = 125um 1.06um-Ra
Medium = 85um 0.48um-Ra
Fine = 65um 0.30um-Ra
xtra-fine = 25um 0.1um-Ra
Scotch-Brite EXL Unitized Wheel, Silicon Carbide,Fine Grit
Cut off wheel -
use for tool grinding
3M™ Cubitron™ II Cut-Off Wheels for gross material removal (of High
Speed Steel) 1mm thickness 65512
Clean surface first with solvent - remove oils.
Start off dry - oil on the stone removes the sensitive feel.
Prepare the work by removing large burrs with a file or regular
Clean and rub the stones first - we want a floating flat feel.
Slide stone gently onto work - you can feel tiny burrs sticking up -
think of these stones as a kind of test tool.
If you feel a big burr - use file or regular stone again.
Feeling something rolling? Stop at once, and clean then rub stones
If things feel smooth try pushing a bit harder - follow grind
To go a little further - use a bit of acetone or alcohol - don't use
oil. Anhydrous isopropanol likely best. Lubrication removes the
sensitive feel and sound of the stones.
Stones can be cleaned via ultrasonic tank - water based cleaner -
Alconox - allow stones to completely dry before using.
When finished - the bare steel can rust - protect it with your
PGS were invented by Harold E. G. Areneson (RIP) of Professional
Instruments Company - also invented high precision air bearings that
had a central sleeve that apparently compensated for load.
Surface grinders normally run at 3-4K-RPM slowing has the
effect of a softer wheel
Typical starting point 46 H or I
Harder J-K 60-80 are for 'form' grinding
Depth of cut 5-15mills(125-400um) roughing 2.5um fine finishing
Normally cast iron.
DIY scraping tool inserts:
3/4 x 3/4 x 3/16
1/2 x 1/2 x 1/8
bar 3/16 x 3/4 cold rolled flat bar
M6 screw holding?
1/8 x 1/2 x 1" USA-Made C2 carbide blanks - MSC # 04120754 or
better carbide processors
Scraper blades are usually straight C-2.
Pin pointing scraper https://youtu.be/QUtH8Wkhrw4?t=2804
Lapping plate Challeng machinery grand haven mi
surface plate Rahn 37230
Blade for scraping carbon-steel as per Alex Fillafer
Alumina disk - out of chemical laboratory - used with diamond - 1um
as a charged lap for mirror finish - Stephans disk is only 100mm
he gets 1000grit(about 15um) for his first polish - near
mirror.. M5 screw hods it together. Wheels from search
terms "faceting lap" "Lapidary - gem polish" etc.. Don't get the
Also he touched up an insert with 1um diamond paste..
Hylomar is the deal for close fitting things - solvent is
acetone. Maximum surface roughness target 2um-Ra
Class 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9. The Higher ABEC classes provide better
precision, efficiency, and greater speed capabilities.
Liquidmoly LM 48 - assembly grease (Stefan likes it) for
chucks etc.. https://products.liqui-moly.com - or blue moly? For
assembly - not moly -- High-performance tungsten disulfide paste for
duty applications. It adheres even to apparently smooth surfaces.
Rubbed into bearings and slideways, it prevents running-in damage
and seizing marks when assembling components with tight pair-
ings. Contains a synergistically active solid lubricant system with
a zinc sulfide, graphite, fluorides and tungsten disulfide base.
Operating temperature range: -35 °C to +450 °C.
One can also just mix some molybdenum disulfide in to a bearing
grease - I like the idea of the first lube having a bit of moly in
Never-seize (AKA Never-sneeze) - Blue moly has more of moly -
molybdenum disulfide 7-13% and pure nickel powder 7-13% NLGI = 0.5 -
not for high speed bearings. The grit is abrasive - but keeps bolts
from seizing. 'Black moly' has even more molybdenum disulfide
10-30%. Zinc Oxide 5-10%. Don't use as assembly grease on
Vactrac A better way oil? Harig oil16211245
Cutting lube -
coolants - schmoo
Kool-Mist will spoil and plug up sprayers and stink - add tiny
amount of some ORTHO-BENZYL-P-CHLOROPHENOL (Lysol concentrate - out
of UK in 2020)
Make a heavy metal jar for schmoo - JIC hydralic cap and
plug -20 (1.25")
coconut oil - 0.5% boric acid (50nm particle size)
QualiChem Quick Tap Extreme-Duty what Edge precision is using for
Aluminum tap majic (Abom likes.)
Mistic Metal Mover (Abom likes for cutting stainless)
Stephan uses Jokisch Alpha 93 cutting oil - comes in aerosol (I
https://www.blaser.com makes very clear stuff - need to find out
what is in synthetics. https://www.qualichem.com
qualichem tapping fluid - used by Peter Stanton
johnsons wax - chain wax??
ferrocote 5856 - source for small quantities???
Break Free CLP
Mobil Grease 28 - spindle ball bearings and ballscrew - thrust ball
bearings - think of this as ball bearing grease
Assembly grease - Liebherr Compund CTK -- Liqui Moly (20216 LM 48
LTS-1 low temp - good water resistance aluminum
AP(All Purpose) Grease is a lithium based multifunctional high
temperature, water resistant grease
MP(Multi Purpose) grease number 2 grease?? washproof?
EP Grease(Extreme Pressure) EP grease has in its components, solid
lubricants (graphite and/or molybdenum disulfide) to provide
protection under heavy loadings.
NLGI consistency number (sometimes called “NLGI grade” or "NLGI
number") expresses a measure of the relative hardness of a grease
||WINSOR LUBE L-245X
||DOW CORNING 44
||MOBILTEMP SHC 32
||ISOFLEX TOPAS NB52
||FERROCOTE 5856 BF
||ISOFLEX TOPAS NCA15
||ISOFLEX NBU 15
||WINSOR LUBE L1018
||PQ CORROSION PREV.
||ISOFLEX NCA 15
|ASTM worked (60 strokes)
penetration at 25 °C
tenths of a millimetre
||Consistency food analog
Do wetting test
4 - ways to prep:
Sandblast if possible
Heat to 250-300C
Clean with TIG torch
All will no longer wet after a few hours. Wonder if this
helps with powder coating as well?
stripping - rust removal
Solvents are a poor choice -
Best with an ultrasonic tank
TSPP(Tetra-Sodium-Pyro-Phosphate) will clean what the deodorized
kerosene solvents leave behind. This forms a Basic solution -
(just 1% gets one a pH around 10).
TSP(Tri-Sodium-phosphate) gets one to 1 pH of about 12 in a 1%
solution. One can remove even paint with it in a strong warm
solution. (Also used as a hard-soldering flux)
Both TSPP and TSP can attack aluminum - so you would want to be
quick and rinse well -
Purple power degreaser (wallymart)
Flash rust does not occur if the wetted surface is above Ph 8.2 or
Columbia coatings http://www.columbiacoatings.com/ DIY powder
powder on hot will fill holes..
Camphor in the tool chest
Boeshield - spray on wax.
Clean and damp and warm - use RO water - active surface?
JAX makes gal jugs of it.
Boric acid + mineral spirits paste - heat to red quench in oil -
Heat over brass chips - blue and repeat
Clean and clean with 'rodico'
Thick brass box with brass shavings to make even heat.
Glass bead cabinet
Makes surface wetable - good for painting
Tacoma upgrade kit for harbor freight cabinet
Diamond coated glass - checkout scanners
70u after heat treatment aloxlFiles Vallorbe Swiss Habilis precision
Diamond like coated glass:
Honneywell part numbers:
46-46807- Diamonex Platter for compact (420mm) (16.5") StratosH 2322.
46-46806- Diamonex Platter for full-size 508mm (20.0") StratosH 2320/2321.
46-00233 - Diamonex Platter - Compact Stratos 2421
46-00234- Diamonex Platter for sub-compact (353mm) (13.9") Stratos 2422.
46-00296- Diamonex Platter with lift handle for compact (399mm) Stratos 2421.
46-01085 - Diamonex Platter - 508mm StratosMS2430-105KD-US.
46-00235- Sapphire Platter for compact (399mm) Stratos 2421.
46-46809- Sapphire Platter for compact (420mm) StratosH 2322.
46-46808- Sapphire Platter for full-size (508mm) StratosH 2320/2321.
46-00236- Sapphire Platter for sub-compact (353mm) Stratos 2422.
46-00297- Sapphire Platter with lift handle for compact (399mm) Stratos 2421.
46-01127 -Sapphire Platter for StratosS and 2421 (399mm) with 3 flip ups.
Thing Everyone has
6-8 tooth (Stephan)
1/2 x 0.025 x 64-1/2 in. - AKA 5' 4.5" silly legacy units
DM2 (DieMaster-2) - bi-metal - 0.025
1/4 3/8 ]
150.5 151mm [59-1/4 - 59-1/2]
9.5mm [3/8"] for metal - not including steel.
Roll-In Band Saw -
Holex Universal clamp (kant twist but better)
Die / spindle
BIAX make air powered 60k -100k RPM Biax? only air -
top end 85-100krpm
NSK pencil grinder dr-500 (Edge precision)
proxxon.com - only goes up to 20k rpm - good dremel
replacement TIR= 50um
kress 1050 FME-P runout of max 10um guaranteed.
PLANET 600 Air Turbine Spindle - 65,000 TIR = 1um
!! ($1000+ used as of 2020) rpm
Continental Diamond Tool Corporation
https://www.cdtusa.net/ CBN grinding tools..
Air Turbine 602JS 40-90krpm TIR = 10um
Rohm the best?
Albrecht chucks keyless look very good
Renzetti hole pattern 6mm thread
Bessel points located .2203 X L from each end --- .5594 x L apart -
equalized deflection by gravity - middle and ends
Airy points = no slope at ends 0.21132* L from each end or .57736
Thermochrom temp crayons.
There is more to this than meets the eye(pun intended).. See http://what-when-how.com/metrology/straight-edges-metrology/
Ren Shape 5045 is our highest density polyurethane
foam board - sacrificial plate for routing - etc.
Epoxy epi- + oxy Epoxy - bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (Bisphenol is
a phenol) - there is a strained triangular ring - with an oxygen
(the oxy of epoxy) and two phenol rings (Phenols like to bond to
everything (thus why rather than their so-call antiox properties -
they bond to metals preventing absorption)).
Hit with hard knocker:
Steel will go RINGGGGGGGGGgggggggg.......
ductile iron will go DING..
cast iron will go THUD.
Detect cast iron from cast steel - dust vs chips
01 tool steel = drill rod
Grinding tests - White, pink, ruby-red, or beige colored wheels work
best - not the cheap black ones
Carbide is heavier than HSS - 14-15g/cm^3 vs a little less than
Durobar is much the same - machines better - better finish
Most common steels
1020 gummy mild steel
1018 has a higher manganese content than certain other low carbon
grades, such as 1020. With higher manganese, 1018 is better steel
for carburized parts, since it produces a harder and more uniform
case. It also has higher mechanical properties and better
machinability due to the cold drawing process
Steel grade cross reference - Which standard to use? Din
W-Nr(Werkstoff-Number) - SAE/ANSI ???? Have a Material Cross Reference List
pdf Just a start..
Need to make a table - columns - SAE - W-rn DIN Description
O1 Drill rod (oil hardened) - 115CrV3 DIN 1.2210 / 115CrV3
4140 - DIN 1.7225
A2080 tool steel
DIN 1.2080 tool-steel (D3) - X210Cr12 D3 is an oil hardening,
high carbon/chromium type tool steel with very high wear resistance.
It hardens with a very slight change in
size. The alloy possesses very high compressive strength and is deep
DIN 1.2379 tool steel (D2) - X 153 CrMoV 12
≈ 720 N/mm² high-alloy steel for through-hardening with
moderate machinability; extremely wear resistant and low warpage,
good dimensional stability, toughness and through hardenability
A2 - A2 Tool Steel | 1.2363 | X100CrMoV5
A2 Tool Steel is a versatile, air hardening chromium alloy tool
steel that replaces O1 tool steel when safer hardening, less
distortion and increased wear resistance are required. AISI type A2
steel is intermediate in wear resistance between O1 oil-hardening
tool steel and D2 high-carbon, high-chromium tool steel.
Toolox® 33 is a prehardened steel suitable for tools and engineering
components. It possesses good dimensional stability after machining.
Delivered in quenched and tempered condition, Toolox® 33 features
high impact toughness and very low residual stresses to achieve good
dimensional stability after machining.
C45 (1045) Steel for making medium carbon tools.
4037 - dowel pins
Din 100Cr6 ball bearing steel SAE 52100
DC-53 Tool Steel
Din W-Nr(Werkstoff-Number) e.g. 1.4404 ( this would be an AISI
SS316L, DIN X2CrNiMo17-12-2, UNS S31603 etc.
- Higher hardness (62-64 HRc) than D2 after heat treatment
- Twice the toughness of D2 with superior wear resistance
- Substantially higher fatigue strength compared to D2
- Smaller primary carbides than D2 protect the die from
chipping and cracking
- Machines and grinds up to 40% faster than D2
- Less residual stress after wire EDM
8620 20NiCrMo2-2 C=.2% Mo=.2% is a hardenable chromium,
molybdenum, nickel low alloy steel often used for carburizing to
develop a case-hardened part.
Alloy composition (by weight)
||% C *
|* The carbon composition of the
alloy is denoted by the last two digits of the SAE
specification number, in hundredths of a percent
C1084 - forging steel - rail track
ANCI C1060 - medium carbon steel C = .55-.65 Mn 0.6-0.9 P
.04max S 0.05 max knuckle pin
TOOLOX 33 - quenched and tempered tool steel designed to have low
residual stresses. It is characterized by its extremely good
machinability and is pre-hardened to 33 HRC.
Gauge blocks are made of 52100 (chromium alloy steel ) tempered to
66 Rc W-nr. 1.3505 - DIN 100Cr6
For Machine shafts
and parts - hardening etc
When you want tough materials that will see high tensile stresses,
loads in alternating directions and magnitudes, you're going to have
to rely on heat treated carbon or other alloy steel.
SAE8620 or equivalent is good - harden (carburize) prior to
SAE4150 machined in an initially normalized condition. If you
subsequently harden and draw to HRC 40-42 -- tough and strong.
Precise bearing fits on the spindle, need finish grinding to size.
Bearing fit will be depend on type of bearings used.
Hang shafts when heat treating. When quenching, dip quench AXIALLY
to avoid the risk of bowing/bending the part.
Surface hardening puts the subsurface into a compressive load which
enhances strength and toughness. Explains why gears are often made
of carberized and hardened 4820 or 8620 or 9310.
8620 makes EXCELLENT gears and shafting material. It is both tough
and wear resistant, especially when deep carbuized. It is also
relatively inexpensive. For really GOOD stuff, ask for AQBQ grade
(aircraft quality, bearing quality). This stuff is comparatively
void and stringer free. It also comes with material certifications
that the imported crap doesn't have.
To really optimize stress reduction/minimization in a part:
1. Stress relieve at 1200F for 1-2 hours at heat prior to heat
treating. Furnace cool if possible.
2. Carburize while standing on edge or hanging in furnace to
3. Quench via axial dip as opposed to laying on side while
4. Double temper prior to grinding
5. Stress relieve at 250-300F after finish grind.
6 - to selectively carburize use copper plating (about 50um
thick) before carburizing.
and heat treatment. Workshop practice series
Heat treating -
plasma carbon nitriding
vacuum temper, deep freeze - service from Solar Atmospheres
Rc hardness. Tool
42 Socket head cap screw
49 scales - metal rulers
49 screwdriver blade
50 hex wrench
55 lock-in pliers
56 pocket knife blade
58 height scribe blade
58 barbers razor blade
59 dowel pin
65 high speed steel
79 micro grain carbide
Minimum of 10.5% chromium. The chromium forms a protective oxide
film on the surface - very thin (2-3 nm).
Ferritic - (Cr 12.5 -17%) mostly nickel free - not heat treatable -
weldable(thin) - magnetic
Martensitic (C - 0.2-1% Cr 10.5-18%) Heat treatable - magnetic -
hard to weld - can get brittle
Austenitic (Cr 16-26% Ni 6-12% +) Most common - non hardenable
- work hardenable - weldable mostly non-magnetic
Duplex (Cr 18-26% Ni 4-7% Mo 0-4% cu ) magnetic,
Sheet steel stock gauge 18 and 10
Stainless sheet 17-7 - easy to harden
Martensiticstainless steels can be heat treated and hardened, but
have reduced chemical resistance
ISO14305 (AKA 303)most easy to machine austenitic grade of stainless
- has Sulfur for machine-ability.
Online metals has several types
360 brass Zn35.5 Fe 0.35 Pb 2.5-3.7 - most common of rod and bar
This is a great material that is harder than Aluminum or bronze and
machines well. We have used it for a great number of projects. Is an
excellent material for valve stems, gears, marine hardware,
pole-line hardware, bolts, nuts, valve bodies and components,
cu90 zn10 - annealed rockwell-F 53
hadness - annealed 40HV - hard 110HV
WOHLHAUPTER boring head -
Schmidt makes small ones
What Peter Stanto uses - actually a d'andrea rebranded.
AB tool's Shear hog for soft stuff
Glacern - hard stuff -
cermet tip kyra cera triangular tpg322
PCD Poly Crystalline diamond aluminum and copper
CBN Cubic Boron Nitride - really hard - harder than diamond at
high temperature. Can actually machine sintered carbide to some
DCMT and CCMT are shapes- Details here
Carbide" is mostly Tungsten Carbide (WC) sintered with cobalt as
a glue to hold it together. - Straight grades (C1, C2, C3, C4) are
tungsten carbide. C5 through C9 are alloyed grades containing
titanium carbide, niobium carbide, tantalum carbide and a few
others also in varying percentages. Each added for certain
characteristics and often only 1 to 5 percent of each. These are
also know as "steel cutting grades" while the C1-C4 numbers are
sometimes called "cast iron and/or aluminum" grades. C-8 or 9 may
be 25% or more TiC so pushing a cermet. Grades above C-9 are
special use and mostly straights. You see them in hammers, dies
|Tungsten Carbide Standard Grade Chart
||Binder Content & Type
||Minimum Transverse Rupture Strength (psi)
|General Purpose Grades
|Metal Forming and Wear Grades
|Rotary Drilling and Mining Grades
|Corrosion Resistant Grades
C1: Good wear resistance, nonferrous drawing, light blanking
dies, mandrels, wear rings, high pressure parts, wood working
blades, valve stems and seats, knives, bearings, grippers and
C2: General Purpose wear resistance, where only light shock is
encountered; small dies and mandrels, nonferrous wire and tube
drawing, nozzles, seal rings and powder compacting dies.
C3: High abrasion resistance, little shock resistance; small
drawing dies, coating and compacting dies, bushings, machines
parts and valve parts.
C4: Hardest grade, high wear resistance, no shock or impact
encountered; wear bushings and nozzles.
Cermet is a composite material composed of ceramic (cer) and
metal (met) materials.
For button head screw - torx-plus is the best - hex drive
fails. Torx-plus should probably be the default for most
socket head fasteners.
low carbon precision ground stock 1/2 x 4 x 11.75
The silicon nitride ball is 0.1875" diameter and is glued in a ball
process and example - approximate
- Milling 10um
- Surface grinding 2um
- Commercial optics - 2.5um - spectacles - prisms
- Scaping cut - 2um
- Surface-plate - 2 - 8um - best small 900nm - light wave
- High quality optics 250nm -
- Gauge block flatness - 100nm - ability to wring ..
- Red light 600nm - 632.8nm popular red neon line
- blue light 450nm
- lapping 30nm - close to 1/20 wave
SiO2 In the form of Alpha-quartz (7moh) - 5.5 x 10-7
/°C = This coefficient is 1/34 that of copper and only 1/7 of
SiC - 4.4X10-6/°C
Cera Zero 826HV *
CAD And CAM
Robenz robinrenzetti uses solidworks CAD
Stephan uses Autodesk Fusion CAD (pro E at work)- Linux CNC
CAM - BOBCAD - I think alibre ..
Yes: Big step for me, had to pull the trigger on a 3d cam
package to go along with Alibre Designer. Tried different packages
in my price range and talked to several long time users (you know
who you are, thanks!), and I ended up buying Bobcad v32 in 3axis,
Pro version. Already using it to work in customer parts, with
multiple setups. Thanks to the #bobcadafterdark
videos. Time will tell what I got myself into ;)
Pro Engineer wildfire runs on Linux M180 - where to get?
solidworks via EAA - but no Linux so nothing-burger.
Peter Stanton(edge precision) uses ESPRIT what uses for CAM
(over $5k) - CAD - spceclaim http://www.spaceclaim.com
Possible Linux stuff - FreeCAD.
solvespace (limited) - onshape(not free)
3D metal printers
Spotting ink - charbonnel aqua wash https://www.dickblick.com
Robin renzetti says 50:50 charbonnel/Canode mix in a syringe is the
bomb- use with latex rubber rollers.
Precision parts to
Ringfedder RfN 8006
- Face and Flank
- On a cutting edge the face is the side where the chip is
formed and the flank is the other side of the parting action.
- Mandrel vs Arbor
- A mandrel holds work, an arbor hold tooling
Phil Perry Hepler KS 66746 - restores machines.
Peter L Stanton - edge precision - Huston TX
Lance Baltzley - source of precision ground stones.
Chris Baca and Mikey Baca - Precision Instrument Repair 909 766
5041 or 760 561 2400