Emco Maximat Super 11 (NOT ENCO!) http://www.lathes.co.uk/emco/page4.html  Emco Maximat V13 Lathe
and VÖEST DA160

Stephan and Muller Nick uses it with Multifix A form Axa tool post holder..  ( abom and Forrest Addy as well)
 simKO Lee?  AXA brand - German made.  (AXA is a brand)
pewetools.de also makes them to original specs.
Sheldon? Harrison M250? M350 Higher better


  1. surface grind
  2. lazer cutter
  3. trimos height gauge
  4. Shaper Origin

D-Bit SOE grinder U2

 - 20mm is common wheel size.

Welding related

Detect, identify metal type - see metals

TIG electrode notes

Tungsten Diameter tungsten area Gas Cup (Inside Dia.) Typical Current Range (Amps)

Direct Current, DC

Alternating Current


DCEN 70% Penetration (50/50) Balanced Wave AC






.040 Tables 63 #5 (3/8 in) 15–80 20–60 15–80 10–30 20–60
.062 (1/16 in) 97
#5 (3/8 in) 70–150 50–100 70–150 30–80 60–120
.093 (3/32 in) 146
#8 (1/2 in) 150–250 100–160 140–235 60–130 100–180
.125 (1/8 in) 196
#8 (1/2 in) 250–400 150–200 225–325 100–180 160–250

DCEN = Direct Current Electrode Negative (Straight Polarity).

all values are based on the use of argon as a shielding gas. other current may be employed depending gas, type equipment, and application.

Color codes

Type of Tungsten
Color code
Provides good arc stability for AC welding. Reasonably good resistance to contamination. Lowest current carrying capacity.
Least expensive. Maintains a balled end.
1.8% to 2.2%
Similar performance to thoriated tungsten. Easy arc starting, good arc stability, long life. Possible replacement for thoriated.
1.7% to 2.2%
Easier arc starting. Higher current capacity. Greater arc stability. High resistance to weld pool contamination.
Difficult to maintain balled end on AC.
1.3% to 1.7%
Similar performance to thoriated tungsten. Easy arc starting, good arc stability, long life, high current capacity.
Possible replacement for thoriated.
0.15% to 0.40%
Excellent for AC welding due to favorable retention of balled end, high resistance to contamination, and
good arc starting. Preferred when tungsten contamination of weld is intolerable.

Tungsten Pure  Green 

Tig on cast iron - use Nickle 99 - actually a type of brazing.

Tip stick out rule of thumb - should be about the same as the cup opening.

Clamping and weld distortion

Despite what people say - it is best to only clamp until the weld tacks are in place. This is the same reason restraining the part (by being fast so the rest of the metal restrains  - or clamping) increases the bend amount in flame straightening.

Argon Gas flow

 Good starting point - set the LPM to the cup size.

Tool steel like rod -

weld mold 958

D2 tig filler metal

Stellite 6/12 tig filler - very hard https://www.stellite.com/us/en/products/hardfacing-alloys/welding-rod.html

c83 rod

Spot Welding

Electrode tips copper tungsten or copper chrome

Silver solder

Stay bright - low temp

High temp use Safety silv 56

Stay-Silv by Harris (Robrenz uses) high temp brazing flux(water based) turns clear at temp

Heat bigger part first

Harris Safety-Silv 45 brazing temperature is1370⁰ to 1550⁰ F.  Safety-Silv 56 is 1200⁰ to 1400⁰ F. 

Safety Silv white flux active range 1000⁰ to 1600⁰ F. Safety Silv black flux  active range 1050⁰ to 1700⁰ F. Also the black flux has a boron content that extends its working time. Flux activity is time limited at brazing temperature.

The liquid flux oxidizes in air over time forming a tough film that inhibits joint wetting. For that reason, plan your operation - do not dally.

A final point is joint cleanliness. Clean the joint thoroughly, then scrub the joint surfaces with Comet cleanser, a stiff brush, and water followed by a hot water rinse. Do not follow with a solvent clean (any  solvent) Conventional wisdom decrees a final acetone wash. Acetone is a commercial product containing impurities, reaction fractions, wax, and tramp particulates. These pyrolyze and inhibit flux activity and joint wetting.
Comet cleanser as your last step makes a huge difference

ZYP Coatings makes a Boron Nitride Aerosol Lubricoat that can be used as a solder resist. Cheaper to get Boron Nitride as 'white graphite'..  - found powder - mix with bit of solvent (acetone or ethanol) Spread on as a resist.

mystery metal - pot - aluminum?

AC - 200A Pulse - 120/s  PK95 Bk70 240Hz - fresh air..

TIG Brazing - silicone bronze

Don't puddle base metal -Stay over bronze -  just hot enough to not ball up.  AC or DC - lay-wire- don't dab -  pulse DC is probably best -- 100A good place to start.. clean everything - even rod ..  Pulsing 1-2/sec 33%-background  33% at peak lets you lay-wire - dabbing makes oxides.   Half strength of steel - but less distortion.

Cast Iron

For cast iron - preheat to 425C
Si Bronze AWS A 5.27 RBCuZn-C melts at 860-890C Tensile Strength 460 MPa 60-68kpsu
Nickel 99 NICKEL 99 AWS/SFA 5.15 Eni-Cl  melts at 1453C  Yield - 36-50ksi

Metal Files

Cut numbers are not the same for different types of files! They really should specify the Pitch - but don't!  Need a Graticule or Reticle to measure it.

Cut rating of files:
Cut number
Pitch um
and Escapement
Pitch um
Swiss pattern
397 498




Frisket film makes for a good resist.


Red loctite 263
mounting wax
https://www.amazon.de/WEKEM-Sekundenkleber-hochviskos-dickfl%C3%BCssig-schwarz/dp/B01AWFQBV WEKEM WK-2400 Good for gluing shim stock for stops
MEK can be used to thin epoxy..

Loctite 1712314 repositional spray adhesive

Hylomar - gasket material - also keeps things from vibrating lose that get taken apart repeatably - not as strong as loctite blue.

Loctite colors.

Purple  Low Strength Threadlockers.
Blue (243): Medium Strength Threadlockers.
Green (294): Penetrating Threadlockers. - wicks into cracks - heat to remove
Red - highest strength -heat to remove.

styrene butadiene

AKA goop -  can be smoothed/formed by thinning with Toluene

Blackmax 380

rubber toughened ethyl cyanoacrylate adhesive with increased flexibility, peel strength, and enhanced resistance to shock for temp stops - fixtures

3M-467 tape

adhesive only -- holds things. - replace adhesive on stickers/plates. - Robrenz recommended.



  - good filler and strong - slow set


Has 5min and the stronger slow set - clear-ish -

Loctite 1373425 Hysol 1C

Top quality epoxy Shore Hardness 65 Shore D, Shear Strength 1500 psi

epoxy tramming - slide forming

Rulon 142 or Turcite

DIY moglice -  DHW epoxy filled with more than 80% by weight steel.
-p is paste like
--FL is pourable.

DWH-310-FL  viscosity 12k-14K (low viscosity) Steel filled
DWH-310-P  low viscosity - coating of parting lines - mounting surfaces

DWH-311-FL   viscosity 20-25k - still low..  aluminum filled
DWH-314-FL  viscosity 28K  Mineral filled

Moglice 1000-FL -  Has low friction additives

the regular moglice has graphite and molybdenum disulfide -
Recipe from patent - percent by weight:

Poor mans recipe epoxy 70 moly 20 graphite 10 - needs test.

The putty moglice is scrapable - but soft - easy to go to far.
The DWH - fitting epoxy..

Adhesive removal

Plexiglass backing gets old and hard to remove - soak in pure cleaning ammonia - scrape off the paper layer - let dry - cover with methanol - wait a bit - scrape.

Bits - drills - reamers - boring - milling cutters

For hard metal - high Rock

Carbide bur for phenolic SGStool.com  73011 FGR #9 Style A
Diamond burr for aluminum??
O-flutes for plastics https://www.onsrud.com/articles/O-Flutes-For-Mechanical-Plastics.asp  https://www.onsrud.com/Series/SolidCarbide1-2FluteDowncutPlastic.asp


Extensions - best are RITMAR 


Lapping Abrasives

PSA diamond film - use PSA only for roughing and be meticulous about cleanliness, dust or hair will make it almost impossible to use. With plain film back just spray the back with water and squeegee it to the plate.

Eye - lap (mcmaster) copper tool for lapping ID to match pins

3M™ Microfinishing Film Roll

 12" wide x 25 yard roll of 220 grit Silicon Carbide paper - Abrasives South Inc. 1-800-255-8112  #18014 roughly $100.00

cerium oxide

At the finest level - lapping after scraping - don't use diamond or sil-carbide - instead .03um alumina- it breaks down - removable with kerosine (why not cerium oxide? )
You can see fringes on high spots. Alumina 9Mohs, Cerium oxide 7mohs - optical rouge lower yet -- iron 4-5 steel knife 5.5 - file 6.5

Graded grits


Sand paper for metal

Most of the skilled people use 3M wet/dry - wet with WD40. - 240 - 320 - 400 followed with Scotch bright is common..


Cratex Brightboy stick deburr https://www.cratex.com 
Coarse = 125um 1.06um-Ra
Medium = 85um 0.48um-Ra
Fine = 65um 0.30um-Ra
xtra-fine = 25um 0.1um-Ra

Scotch-Brite EXL Unitized Wheel, Silicon Carbide,Fine Grit

Cut off wheel - use for tool grinding

3M™ Cubitron™ II Cut-Off Wheels for gross material removal (of High Speed Steel) 1mm thickness 65512

PGS (Precision Ground Stones)

Clean surface first with solvent - remove oils.
Start off dry - oil on the stone removes the sensitive feel.
Prepare the work by removing large burrs with a file or regular stone.
Clean and rub the stones first - we want a floating flat feel.
Slide stone gently onto work - you can feel tiny burrs sticking up - think of these stones as a kind of test tool.
If you feel a big burr - use file or regular stone again.
Feeling something rolling? Stop at once, and clean then rub stones again.
If things feel smooth try pushing a bit harder - follow grind direction.
To go a little further - use a bit of acetone or alcohol - don't use oil. Anhydrous isopropanol likely best. Lubrication removes the sensitive feel and sound of the stones.
Stones can be cleaned via ultrasonic tank - water based cleaner - Alconox - allow stones to completely dry before using.
When finished - the bare steel can rust - protect it with your favorite schmoo.

PGS were invented by Harold E. G. Areneson (RIP) of Professional Instruments Company - also invented high precision air bearings that had a central sleeve that apparently compensated for load.

Grinding wheels

Surface grinders normally run at 3-4K-RPM  slowing has the effect of a softer wheel
Typical starting point  46 H or I
10 structure

Harder J-K 60-80 are for 'form' grinding
Depth of cut 5-15mills(125-400um) roughing 2.5um fine finishing


Normally cast iron.
DIY scraping tool  inserts:
3/4 x 3/4 x 3/16
1/2 x 1/2 x 1/8
bar 3/16 x 3/4 cold rolled flat bar
M6 screw holding?

1/8 x 1/2 x 1" USA-Made C2 carbide blanks - MSC # 04120754 or better carbide processors

Scraper blades are usually straight C-2.
Pin pointing scraper https://youtu.be/QUtH8Wkhrw4?t=2804

Blade for scraping carbon-steel as per Alex Fillafer

Lapping machine

Alumina disk - out of chemical laboratory - used with diamond - 1um as a charged lap for mirror finish - Stephans disk is only 100mm
he gets 1000grit(about 15um) for his first polish - near mirror..   M5 screw hods it together. Wheels from search terms "faceting lap" "Lapidary - gem polish" etc.. Don't get the cheapest.
Also he touched up an insert with 1um diamond paste..



Hylomar is the deal for close fitting things - solvent is acetone.   Maximum surface roughness target 2um-Ra

Ball bearings

Class 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9. The Higher ABEC classes provide better precision, efficiency, and greater speed capabilities.


Liquidmoly LM 48 -  assembly grease (Stefan likes it) for chucks etc.. https://products.liqui-moly.com - or blue moly? For assembly - not moly -- High-performance tungsten disulfide paste for heavy-
duty applications. It adheres even to apparently smooth surfaces. Rubbed into bearings and slideways, it prevents running-in damage and seizing marks when assembling components with tight pair-
ings. Contains a synergistically active solid lubricant system with a zinc sulfide, graphite, fluorides and tungsten disulfide base. Operating temperature range: -35 °C to +450 °C.

One can also just mix some molybdenum disulfide in to a bearing grease - I like the idea of the first lube having a bit of moly in it.

Never-seize (AKA Never-sneeze) - Blue moly has more of moly - molybdenum disulfide 7-13% and pure nickel powder 7-13% NLGI = 0.5 - not for high speed bearings. The grit is abrasive - but keeps bolts from seizing. 'Black moly' has even more molybdenum disulfide 10-30%. Zinc Oxide 5-10%.  Don't use as assembly grease on bearings.

Vactrac A better way oil? Harig oil16211245  http://www.trutech.store/harigstore/product.php?productid=17810

Cutting lube - coolants - schmoo

Aluminum routing - pure A-IPA mist - tiny amount - easy clean up.
Kool-Mist will spoil and plug up sprayers and stink - add tiny amount of some ORTHO-BENZYL-P-CHLOROPHENOL (Lysol concentrate - out of UK in 2020)
Make a heavy metal jar for schmoo  - JIC hydralic cap and plug  -20 (1.25")
coconut oil -  0.5% boric acid (50nm particle size)
anchor lube
Kleen flo
rapid tap
QualiChem Quick Tap Extreme-Duty what Edge precision is using for tapping.
Aluminum tap majic (Abom likes.)
Mistic Metal Mover (Abom likes for cutting stainless)
Stephan uses Jokisch Alpha 93 cutting oil - comes in aerosol (I like)

https://www.blaser.com makes very clear stuff - need to find out what is in synthetics.  https://www.qualichem.com

qualichem tapping fluid - used by Peter Stanton

Rust prevention

johnsons wax - chain wax??
Break Free CLP

ferrocote 5856 - source for small quantities???


Mobil Grease 28 - spindle ball bearings and ballscrew - thrust ball bearings - think of this as ball bearing grease

Assembly grease - Liebherr Compund CTK -- Liqui Moly (20216 LM 48 Assembly Paste)

LTS-1 low temp - good water resistance aluminum
AP(All Purpose) Grease is a lithium based multifunctional high temperature, water resistant grease
MP(Multi Purpose) grease number 2 grease?? washproof?
EP Grease(Extreme Pressure) EP grease has in its components, solid lubricants (graphite and/or molybdenum disulfide) to provide protection under heavy loadings.
NLGI consistency number (sometimes called “NLGI grade” or "NLGI number") expresses a measure of the relative hardness of a grease

23 ANDOK C FS118
44 ANDOK 260 FS167E
67 RHEOTEMP 500 FS208
76 KRYTOX 240AB FS452
86 MOBIL 28 FS381A
125 FERROCOTE 5856 BF FS639
161 KRYTOX 240AC FS433
162 ISOFLEX NBU 15 FS637
167 WINSOR LUBE L1018 FS179A
443 ISOFLEX NCA 15 FS905

ASTM worked (60 strokes)
penetration at 25 °C
tenths of a millimetre
Appearance Consistency food analog
000 445-475 fluid cooking oil
00 400-430 semi-fluid apple sauce
0 355-385 very soft brown mustard
1 310-340 soft tomato paste
2 265-295 "normal" grease peanut butter
3 220-250 firm vegetable shortening
4 175-205 very firm frozen yogurt
5 130-160 hard smooth pate
6 85-115 very hard cheddar cheese

Recommended Torque


Improve wetting

Do wetting test
4 - ways to prep:
Comet cleanser
Sandblast if possible
Heat to 250-300C
Clean with TIG torch

All will no longer wet after a few hours.   Wonder if this helps with powder coating as well?

Degreasing and stripping - rust removal

Solvents are a poor choice -

 Best with an ultrasonic tank  TSPP(Tetra-Sodium-Pyro-Phosphate) will clean what the deodorized kerosene solvents leave behind. This forms a Basic solution - (just 1% gets one a pH around 10). 

TSP(Tri-Sodium-phosphate) gets one to 1 pH of about 12 in a 1% solution.  One can remove even paint with it in a strong warm solution.  (Also used as a hard-soldering flux)

Both TSPP and TSP can attack aluminum - so you would want to be quick and rinse well -
Purple power degreaser (wallymart)

Flash rust does not occur if the wetted surface is above Ph 8.2 or so..


Powder coating

Columbia coatings http://www.columbiacoatings.com/ DIY powder coating 230C
Chrome http://www.columbiacoatings.com/store/p/1118-All-In-One-Chrome.aspx
powder on hot will fill holes..

Rust prevention

Storage coatings

Camphor in the tool chest

Boeshield  - spray on wax.

Cold bluing

Clean and damp and warm - use RO water - active surface?
JAX makes gal jugs of it.

Hot bluing

Boric acid + mineral spirits paste - heat to red quench in oil - polish
Heat over brass chips - blue and repeat
Clean and clean with 'rodico'
Thick brass box with brass shavings to make even heat.

Glass bead cabinet

150 micron

Makes surface wetable - good for painting
Tacoma upgrade kit for harbor freight cabinet http://www.tacomacompany.com/
Diamond coated glass - checkout scanners

70u after heat treatment aloxlFiles Vallorbe Swiss Habilis precision file http://www.vallorbe.com/en-ch/products/files/habilis-files

Diamond like coated glass:
 Honneywell part numbers: 
46-46807- Diamonex Platter for compact (420mm) (16.5") StratosH 2322.
46-46806- Diamonex Platter for full-size 508mm (20.0") StratosH 2320/2321.
46-00233 - Diamonex Platter - Compact Stratos 2421
46-00234- Diamonex Platter for sub-compact (353mm) (13.9") Stratos 2422.
46-00296- Diamonex Platter with lift handle for compact (399mm) Stratos 2421.
46-01085 - Diamonex Platter - 508mm StratosMS2430-105KD-US.
46-00235- Sapphire Platter for compact (399mm) Stratos 2421.
46-46809- Sapphire Platter for compact (420mm) StratosH 2322.
46-46808- Sapphire Platter for full-size (508mm) StratosH 2320/2321.
46-00236- Sapphire Platter for sub-compact (353mm) Stratos 2422.
46-00297- Sapphire Platter with lift handle for compact (399mm) Stratos 2421.
46-01127 -Sapphire Platter for StratosS and 2421 (399mm) with 3 flip ups.


 Chinese Thing Everyone has

6-8 tooth (Stephan)

1/2 x 0.025 x 64-1/2 in. - AKA 5' 4.5" silly legacy units

DM2 (DieMaster-2) - bi-metal - 0.025

Skil 3386

Width 3.2-6.4-9.5mm [1/8 1/4 3/8 ]

length 150.5 151mm [59-1/4 - 59-1/2]

Bimetal in 9.5mm [3/8"] for metal - not including steel.

Roll-In Band Saw - Model EF1459

Dream machine


Holex Universal clamp (kant twist but better) https://www.hoffmann-group.com/PT/en/hop/Hand-and-assembly-tools/Clamps/c/86

Die / spindle Grinder

BIAX make air powered  60k -100k RPM Biax?  only air - top end 85-100krpm

NSK pencil grinder dr-500 (Edge precision) 

proxxon.com - only goes up to 20k rpm - good dremel replacement  TIR= 50um

https://store.cncstepusa.com/products/kress-1050-fme-p  kress 1050 FME-P runout of max 10um guaranteed.

https://www.nsk-nakanishi.co.jp/industrial-eng/mgt/emaxevolution/ Stephan's latest

Spindle air grinder

PLANET 600 Air Turbine Spindle - 65,000   TIR = 1um !!  ($1000+ used as of 2020) rpm http://www.nskamericacorp.com/product/category/planet/28?AspxAutoDetectCookieSupport=1

Continental Diamond Tool Corporation https://www.cdtusa.net/  CBN grinding tools..

Air Turbine 602JS 40-90krpm TIR = 10um

U2 grinding machine


Rohm the best?
Albrecht chucks keyless look very good

ER Collets Notes

The collet HAS to be snapped in before tightening.

Do not use the backup screw to set length - it is tightened AFTER the collet.

Measurement and blocks

Setup blocks 20x40x60mm
Renzetti hole pattern 6mm thread


Plastigauge -  -- I have used multicore solder with accurate results as well.  Just squish the solder - measure with micrometer.

Support blocks

Bessel points located .2203 X L from each end --- .5594 x L apart - equalized deflection by gravity - middle and ends
Airy points = no slope at ends 0.21132* L from each end or .57736 apart


Thermochrom temp crayons.

Using Straight edge

There is more to this than meets the eye(pun intended).. See http://what-when-how.com/metrology/straight-edges-metrology/

Plastics and similar materials

Ren Shape 5045 is our highest density polyurethane foam board - sacrificial plate for routing - etc.


Epoxy epi- + oxy Epoxy - bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (Bisphenol is a phenol) - there is a strained triangular ring - with an oxygen (the oxy of epoxy) and two phenol rings (Phenols like to bond to everything (thus why rather than their so-call antiox properties - they bond to metals preventing absorption)).


Detect, identify metal type

Hit with hard knocker:
Steel will go RINGGGGGGGGGgggggggg.......
ductile iron will go DING..
cast iron will go THUD.


Detect cast iron from cast steel - dust vs chips

01 tool steel = drill rod

Grinding tests - White, pink, ruby-red, or beige colored wheels work best - not the cheap black ones
See spark-tests

Carbide is heavier than HSS - 14-15g/cm^3 vs a little less than 8gm/cm^2


Special alloys


Cast iron

Durobar is much the same - machines better - better finish


Most common steels
1020  gummy mild steel

Mild Steel

1018 has a higher manganese content than certain other low carbon grades, such as 1020. With higher manganese, 1018 is better steel for carburized parts, since it produces a harder and more uniform case. It also has higher mechanical properties and better machinability due to the cold drawing process


Steel grade cross reference - Which standard to use?  Din W-Nr(Werkstoff-Number) - SAE/ANSI ???? Have a Material Cross Reference List pdf Just a start..
Need to make a table - columns - SAE - W-rn DIN Description 

O1 Drill rod (oil hardened) - 115CrV3  DIN 1.2210 / 115CrV3

4140 - DIN 1.7225
A2080 tool steel
DIN 1.2080 tool-steel (D3) - X210Cr12  D3 is an oil hardening, high carbon/chromium type tool steel with very high wear resistance. It hardens with a very slight change in
size. The alloy possesses very high compressive strength and is deep hardening.

DIN 1.2379 tool steel  (D2) - X 153 CrMoV 12    ≈ 720 N/mm²  high-alloy steel for through-hardening with moderate machinability; extremely wear resistant and low warpage, good dimensional stability, toughness and through hardenability

A2 - A2 Tool Steel | 1.2363 | X100CrMoV5

A2 Tool Steel is a versatile, air hardening chromium alloy tool steel that replaces O1 tool steel when safer hardening, less distortion and increased wear resistance are required. AISI type A2 steel is intermediate in wear resistance between O1 oil-hardening tool steel and D2 high-carbon, high-chromium tool steel.

Toolox® 33 is a prehardened steel suitable for tools and engineering components. It possesses good dimensional stability after machining. Delivered in quenched and tempered condition, Toolox® 33 features high impact toughness and very low residual stresses to achieve good dimensional stability after machining.

C45 (1045) Steel for making medium carbon tools.
4037 - dowel pins https://www.steelforge.com/alloy-steel-4037-aisi-4037 Molybdenum
Din 100Cr6 ball bearing steel SAE 52100
DC-53 Tool Steel
Din W-Nr(Werkstoff-Number) e.g. 1.4404 ( this would be an AISI SS316L, DIN X2CrNiMo17-12-2, UNS S31603 etc.

8620 20NiCrMo2-2 C=.2% Mo=.2%  is a hardenable chromium, molybdenum, nickel low alloy steel often used for carburizing to develop a case-hardened part.

Alloy composition (by weight)
SAE grade % >Cr % Mo % C * % Mn % P(max) % S(max) % Si
4118 0.40–0.60 0.08–0.15 0.18–0.23 0.70–0.90 0.035 0.040 0.15–0.35
4120 0.40–0.60 0.13–0.20 0.18–0.23 0.90–1.20 0.035 0.040 0.15–0.35
4121 0.45–0.65 0.20–0.30 0.18–0.23 0.75–1.00 0.035 0.040 0.15–0.35
4130 0.80–1.10 0.15–0.25 0.28–0.33 0.40–0.60 0.035 0.040 0.15–0.35
4135 0.80–1.10 0.15–0.25 0.33–0.38 0.70–0.90 0.035 0.040 0.15–0.35
4137 0.80–1.10 0.15–0.25 0.35–0.40 0.70–0.90 0.035 0.040 0.15–0.35
4140 0.80–1.10 0.15–0.25 0.38–0.43 0.75–1.00 0.035 0.040 0.15–0.35
4142 0.80–1.10 0.15–0.25 0.40–0.45 0.75–1.00 0.035 0.040 0.15–0.35
4145 0.80–1.10 0.15–0.25 0.43–0.48 0.75–1.00 0.035 0.040 0.15–0.35
4147 0.80–1.10 0.15–0.25 0.45–0.50 0.75–1.00 0.035 0.040 0.15–0.35
4150 0.80–1.10 0.15–0.25 0.48–0.53 0.75–1.00 0.035 0.040 0.15–0.35
4161 0.70–0.90 0.25–0.35 0.56–0.64 0.75–1.00 0.035 0.040 0.15–0.35
* The carbon composition of the alloy is denoted by the last two digits of the SAE specification number, in hundredths of a percent

C1084 - forging steel - rail track
ANCI C1060 - medium carbon steel C = .55-.65  Mn 0.6-0.9 P .04max S 0.05 max knuckle pin
TOOLOX 33 - quenched and tempered tool steel designed to have low residual stresses. It is characterized by its extremely good machinability and is pre-hardened to 33 HRC.
Gauge blocks are made of 52100 (chromium alloy steel ) tempered to 66 Rc  W-nr. 1.3505 - DIN 100Cr6

For Machine shafts and parts - hardening etc

When you want tough materials that will see high tensile stresses, loads in alternating directions and magnitudes, you're going to have to rely on heat treated carbon or other alloy steel.

SAE8620 or equivalent is good - harden (carburize)  prior to grinding.
SAE4150 machined in an initially normalized condition. If you subsequently harden and draw to HRC 40-42 -- tough and strong.

Precise bearing fits on the spindle, need finish grinding to size. Bearing fit will be depend on type of bearings used.
Hang shafts when heat treating. When quenching, dip quench AXIALLY to avoid the risk of bowing/bending the part.
Surface hardening puts the subsurface into a compressive load which enhances strength and toughness. Explains why gears are often made of carberized and hardened 4820 or 8620 or 9310.

8620 makes EXCELLENT gears and shafting material. It is both tough and wear resistant, especially when deep carbuized. It is also relatively inexpensive. For really GOOD stuff, ask for AQBQ grade (aircraft quality, bearing quality). This stuff is comparatively void and stringer free. It also comes with material certifications that the imported crap doesn't have.

To really optimize stress reduction/minimization in a part:

1. Stress relieve at 1200F for 1-2 hours at heat prior to heat treating. Furnace cool if possible.

2. Carburize while standing on edge or hanging in furnace to minimize warpage.

3. Quench via axial dip as opposed to laying on side while quenching.

4. Double temper prior to grinding

5. Stress relieve at 250-300F after finish grind.

6 - to selectively carburize  use copper plating (about 50um thick) before carburizing.

Hardening, tempering and heat treatment. Workshop practice series

Heat treating - carbonizing

plasma carbon nitriding
vacuum temper, deep freeze - service from Solar Atmospheres


Rc hardness. Tool
42 Socket head cap screw
49 scales - metal rulers
49 screwdriver blade
50 hex wrench
55 lock-in pliers
56 pocket knife blade
58 height scribe blade
58 barbers razor blade
59 dowel pin
65 file
65 high speed steel
79 micro grain carbide


Minimum of 10.5% chromium. The chromium forms a protective oxide film on the surface - very thin (2-3 nm).
Ferritic - (Cr 12.5 -17%) mostly nickel free - not heat treatable - weldable(thin) - magnetic
Martensitic (C - 0.2-1% Cr 10.5-18%) Heat treatable - magnetic - hard to weld - can get brittle
Austenitic (Cr 16-26% Ni 6-12% +)  Most common - non hardenable - work hardenable - weldable mostly non-magnetic
Duplex (Cr 18-26% Ni 4-7% Mo 0-4% cu ) magnetic,

Sheet steel stock gauge 18 and 10

Stainless sheet 17-7 - easy to harden
Martensiticstainless steels can be heat treated and hardened, but have reduced chemical resistance
ISO14305 (AKA 303)most easy to machine austenitic grade of stainless - has Sulfur for machine-ability.  https://titussteel.com/our-products/mold-and-die-steels/tool-ox-33/


Online metals has several types
360 brass Zn35.5 Fe 0.35 Pb 2.5-3.7 - most common of rod and bar


Aluminum Bronze 642

This is a great material that is harder than Aluminum or bronze and machines well. We have used it for a great number of projects. Is an excellent material for valve stems, gears, marine hardware, pole-line hardware, bolts, nuts, valve bodies and components, mechanical parts

Gilding metal

cu90 zn10  - annealed rockwell-F 53
hadness - annealed 40HV - hard 110HV

cutting tools

WOHLHAUPTER boring head -
Schmidt makes small ones http://www.schmid-praezision.de/eng/?Products-and-Service/Facing--and-Boring-Heads/UBS-Universal-Facing-and-Boring-Head  ausdrehkopf

Iscar DR-MF-08R-2.25D-12A-04  https://www.iscar.com/Products.aspx/CountryID/1/ProductId/4906 What Peter Stanto uses - actually a d'andrea rebranded. $500-$700/2020

Insert holder

AB tool's Shear hog for soft stuff

Glacern - hard stuff -

cermet tip kyra cera  triangular  tpg322

Cutting tool materials

Inserts Carbide

PCD Poly Crystalline diamond aluminum and copper

CBN Cubic Boron Nitride - really hard - harder than diamond at high temperature. Can actually machine sintered carbide to some extent.

DCMT and CCMT are shapes- Details here http://www.carbidedepot.com/formulas-insert-d.htm

Carbide" is mostly Tungsten Carbide (WC) sintered with cobalt as a glue to hold it together. - Straight grades (C1, C2, C3, C4) are tungsten carbide. C5 through C9 are alloyed grades containing titanium carbide, niobium carbide, tantalum carbide and a few others also in varying percentages.  Each added for certain characteristics and often only 1 to 5 percent of each. These are also know as "steel cutting grades" while the C1-C4 numbers are sometimes called "cast iron and/or aluminum" grades. C-8 or 9 may be 25% or more TiC so pushing a cermet. Grades above C-9 are special use and mostly straights. You see them in hammers, dies and such.

Tungsten Carbide Standard Grade Chart
Industry Code FCC Grade Binder Content & Type Hardness (Ra) Hardness
Density (g/cm3) Minimum Transverse Rupture Strength (psi) Grain Size
General Purpose Grades
C2 FC3 6% Co 92.0 1585 14.95 320,000 Fine
C1 FC4 7.5% Co 91.0 1460 14.70 330,000 Fine
Metal Forming and Wear Grades
C10 FC10 9% Co 90.0 1360 14.60 360,000 Medium
C11 FC11 12% Co 89.5 1315 14.30 390,000 Medium
C12 FC12 15% Co 88.0 1190 14.00 420,000 Medium
C13 FC13 20% Co 85.0 955 13.60 450,000 Medium
C14 FC25 25% Co 83.2 760 13.15 435,000 Medium
Submicron Grades
C3 FC3M 6% Co 93.0 1740 14.95 375,000 Submicron
C2 FC10M 10% Co 91.9 1570 14.50 450,000 Submicron
C1 FC12M 15% Co 89.5 1315 14.00 530,000 Submicron
Rotary Drilling and Mining Grades
C11 FC10C 10% Co 88.6 1240 14.50 400,000 Coarse
C12 FC11C 10% Co 87.8 1175 14.50 425,000 Coarse
Corrosion Resistant Grades
- FC3N 6% Ni 91.0 1460 14.95 275,000 Fine
- FC10N 9% Ni 89.5 1315 14.60 290,000 Fine
- FC8N 8.5% Ni 91.5 1515 14.50 300,000 Fine
- FC82 15% Ni+Co 89.9 1355 9.00 310,000 Fine

C1: Good wear resistance, nonferrous drawing, light blanking dies, mandrels, wear rings, high pressure parts, wood working blades, valve stems and seats, knives, bearings, grippers and guides.
C2: General Purpose wear resistance, where only light shock is encountered; small dies and mandrels, nonferrous wire and tube drawing, nozzles, seal rings and powder compacting dies.
C3: High abrasion resistance, little shock resistance; small drawing dies, coating and compacting dies, bushings, machines parts and valve parts.
C4: Hardest grade, high wear resistance, no shock or impact encountered; wear bushings and nozzles.

Cermet is a composite material composed of ceramic (cer) and metal (met) materials.



For button head screw - torx-plus is the best - hex drive fails.  Torx-plus should probably be the default for most socket head fasteners.


low carbon precision ground stock 1/2 x 4 x 11.75
The silicon nitride ball is 0.1875" diameter and is glued in a ball milled pocket.

Flatness by process and example - approximate

Surface Plate notes

SiO2 In the form of Alpha-quartz (7moh) - 5.5 x 10-7 /°C = This coefficient is 1/34 that of copper and only 1/7 of borosilicate glass.

SiC  - 4.4X10-6/°C

Cera Zero  826HV *


Robenz robinrenzetti uses solidworks CAD
Stephan uses Autodesk Fusion CAD (pro E at work)- Linux CNC CAM  - BOBCAD - I think alibre ..
Yes: Big step for me, had to pull the trigger on a 3d cam package to go along with Alibre Designer. Tried different packages in my price range and talked to several long time users (you know who you are, thanks!), and I ended up buying Bobcad v32 in 3axis, Pro version. Already using it to work in customer parts, with multiple setups. Thanks to the #bobcadafterdark videos. Time will tell what I got myself into ;)

Pro Engineer wildfire runs on Linux M180 - where to get?
solidworks via EAA - but no Linux so nothing-burger.

Peter Stanton(edge precision) uses ESPRIT what  uses for CAM (over $5k) - CAD - spceclaim http://www.spaceclaim.com

Possible Linux stuff - FreeCAD. solvespace (limited) - onshape(not free)

3D metal printers


Spotting ink - charbonnel aqua wash  https://www.dickblick.com
PRussian blue
primrose yellow
cardinal red
Robin renzetti says 50:50 charbonnel/Canode mix in a syringe is the bomb- use with latex rubber rollers.

Precision parts to think about

Misumi miniature ball slides

Keyless shaft locking

Misumi KPL300
Ringfedder RfN 8006

Machining Terms

Face and Flank 
On a cutting edge the face is the side where the chip is formed and the flank is the other side of the parting action.
Mandrel vs Arbor
A mandrel holds work, an arbor hold tooling


Plates and angles

Large Cast iron lapping plate Bush - Milwaukee 18" x 15" ( Grooves are .078”W(2mm) x .100”D on .531” (13.5mm) centers. )
Lapping plate Challeng machinery grand haven MI  10" x 14"
surface plate Rahn 37230  !4" x 14"
Shars Granite Square - rt angle - 254 mm x 152 mm x 25mm
Surface Plate unnamed 9 x 12
Surface plate unnamed
Granite sink cutout 8.5 x 8
Step right angle 6 x 6
Cylindrical Square 6"
Surfcenter Brunswick Engineering Inc.


Phil Perry Hepler KS 66746  - restores machines.
Peter L Stanton - edge precision - Huston TX
Lance Baltzley - source of precision ground stones.
Chris Baca and Mikey Baca - Precision Instrument Repair 909 766 5041  or 760 561 2400


Finish mill config
Print - ER collet taper cleaner
rebuild table
gage holder
update 3D printer
solid guitar


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